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Full text of "A naturalist in western China, with vasculum, camera, and gun; being some account of eleven years' travel, exploration, and observation in the more remote parts of the Flowery kingdom"

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I. The Flora of Western China : A Brief Account of 

THE Richest Temperate Flora in the World . i 

II. The Principal Timber Trees . . . • 15 

III. Fruits, Wild and Cultivated . . . . 24 

IV. Chinese Materia Medica . . . . "34 

V. Gardens and Gardening: Favourite Flowers Culti- 
vated BY the Chinese . . . . .42 

VI. Agriculture : The Principal Food-Stuff Crops . 48 

VII. The more Important Plant Products : Wild and 

Cultivated Trees of Economic Importance . 64 

VIII. The more Important Plant Products : Cultivated 

Shrubs and Herbs of Economic Value . . 79 

IX. Tea and " Tea- Yielding " Plants: The Tea Industry 

FOR THE Thibetan Markets , . . .89 

X. Insect White-Wax . . . . .100 

XI. Sport in Western China : Pheasants and other 

Game Birds ...... 106 

XII. Sport in Western China : Wild-Fowl — Shooting on 

THE Ya River ...... 138 

XIII. Sport in Western China : Ruminant and other Game 

Animals ....... 144 

XIV. Sport in Western China : Carnivorous and other 

Animals, including Monkeys . . . .178 

XV. Western China : Minerals and Mineral Wealth . 194 

XVI. Conclusion : Some General Remarks on the Rebel- 
lion — The Causes which have produced it; the 
People and Future Possibilities . . . 200 

Index . . , . . . .211 


The Lotus Tree (Diospyros lotus), 8o ft. tall, Girth 12 ft. 



Deutzia Wilsonii ...... 2 

The Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica), 80 ft. tall, Girth 

12 FT. ....... 4 

A Forest of Spruce (Picea) . . . . .8 

The Thibetan Moccasin Flower (Cypripedium tibeticum) . 10 

The Spiny Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea), 60 ft. tall . 16 

The Chinese 'Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), 120 ft. tall. 

Girth 20 ft. .... .18 

The Chinese Pine (Pinus massoniana), 80 ft. tall, Girth 10 ft. 20 

A Dressed Log of Hemlock Spruce, 18 ft. 6 in. by 9 in. by 7 in. 22 

The Mandarin Orange in Full Fruit . . .24 

The Walnut (Juglans regia), 60 ft. tall, Girth 12 ft. . 26 

The Flowers and Fruit of Actinidia chinensis . . 30 

A Medicinal Rhubarb (Rheum officinale) . . . 2^ 

A Load of " Tu-Chung " (The Bark of Eucommia ulmoides) . 2>^ 

A Field of Platycodon grandiflorum . . -38 

A Cypress Avenue (Cupressus funebris), Chao-chueh 

Temple near the City of Chengtu . . .42 

The Lotus Lily (Nelumbium speciosum) . . .44 

The Maidenhair Tree (Ginkgo biloba), 90 ft. tall. Girth 

24 FT. . . . . . . .46 


The Rambler Rose (Rosa multiflora) 

Irrigation Wheels ..... 

Peasants transplanting Rice 

The Wax-Gourd (Benincasa cerifera) 

The Tung-oil Tree (Aleurites Fordii) in Flower : Fruit 

The Lacquer-Varnish Tree (Rhus verniciflua), 40 ft. tall 

A Soap-Tree (Gleditsia sinensis), 25 ft. tall 

Fields of the Opium Poppy . 

Ramie or China-Grass (Bcehmeria nivea) 

A Field of Tobacco . 

Brick Tea for the Tachienlu Market 

A Tea Plantation 

Insect White- Wax and'vTree (Ligustrum lucidum) 

The Reeves Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesi), $ 8 if in. 9 32 in 

The Anderson Pheasant (Phasi anus elegans), S 29 in. ? 21 in 

The Thibetan Eared-Pheasant (Crossoptilun tibetanum) 
6 38i in. ? 34| IN. 

The Ichang Pheasant (Phasianus holdereri), S 34^ in. ? 23-|- 

IN. . 

Lady Amherst Pheasant (Chrysolophus amhersti^), 3 44 in 

A Pheasant Grouse (Tetraophasis szechenyi), 9 18 in. 

A Blood Pheasant (Ithagenes geoffroyi), 6 18 in. 9 i6|- in 

The Thibetan Hazel-Hen (Tetrastes severtzovi), 6 14^ in 
9 12^ in. . . . . . 

The Sifan Partridge (Predix hodgsoni^ sifanica), ^ i i-|- in 
9 10^ IN. . 

A Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), 3 12 in. 
A Bamboo Raft and Bag of Duck . 





The Ichang Goral 6 , ? and Young 6 

The Chinese Takin (Budorcas tibetanus), ? Shot by Walter 
R. Zappey ..... 

Antlers of Thibetan Wapiti : Horns of Takin and Serow 

Trap for spearing Takin .... 

Styan's Panda (Ailurus fulgens styani), S 44 in. 

A Leopard Trap ..... 

The Salt Wells at Kuichou Fu 

My Chinese Collectors ; Men of the Peasant Class 

Chao-erh-feng, Viceroy of Szechuan, murdered by the 
Revolutionists ..... 










A Brief Account of the Richest Temperate Flora 
IN THE World 

IN previous chapters the wildly mountainous character of 
Western China has been emphasized. Such a region, afford- 
ing, as it does, altitudinal extremes, a great diversity in 
climate, and a copious rainfall, is naturally expected to support 
a rich and varied flora. Yet after making every allowance 
for the favourable conditions that obtain in this region the 
wealth of flowers which meets the eye of the botanist is astonish- 
ing and surpasses the dreams of the most sanguine. Com- 
petent authorities estimate the Chinese flora to contain fully 
15,000 species, half of which are peculiar to the country. 
These figures speak for themselves and yet fail to give a truly 
adequate idea of the profusion of flowers. The remote mountain 
fastnesses of central and Western China are simply a botanical 
paradise, with trees, shrubs, and herbs massed together in a 
confusion that is bewildering. On first arriving in a new and 
strange country it is difficult to recognize the plants one is 
familiar with under cultivation, and many months necessarily 
elapse before one is in any sense familiar with the common 
plants around him. During the eleven years I travelled in 
~ China I collected some 65,000 specimens, comprising about 
5000 species, and sent home seeds of over 1500 different plants. 
^Nevertheless, it was only during the latter half of this period 
cr> VOL. II. — I 



that I was able to form an intelligent idea of the flora of China 
and to properly appreciate its richness and manifold problems. 

The Chinese flora is, beyond question, the richest temper- 
ate flora in the world. A greater number of different kinds 
of trees are found in China than in the whole of the other 
north-temperate regions. Every important genus of broad- 
leaved trees known from the temperate regions of the Northern 
Hemisphere is represented in China except the Hickory 
{Gary a), Plane [Platanus), and False Acacia [Rohinia). All 
the coniferous genera of the same regions, except the Redwoods 
[Sequoia), Swamp Cypress (Taxodium), Chamaecyparis, 
Umbrella Pine [Sciadopitys), and true Cedars (Cedrus), are 
found there. In North America, excluding Mexico, about 
165 genera of broad-leaved trees occur. In China the number 
exceeds 260. Of the 300 genera of shrubs enumerated in 
the Kew Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs (1902 ed.) fully half 
are represented in China. 

The great interest and value, however, of the Chinese 
flora lies not so much in its wealth of species as in the 
ornamental character and suitability of a vast number for 
the embellishment of parks and outdoor gardens throughout 
the temperate regions of the world. My work in China has 
been the means of discovering and introducing numerous new 
plants to Europe and North America and elsewhere. But 
previous to this work of mine the value of Chinese plants 
was well known and appreciated. Evidence of this is afforded 
by the fact that there is no garden worthy of the name, 
throughout the length and breadth of the temperate parts 
of the Northern Hemisphere, that does not contain a few 
plants of Chinese origin. Our Tea and Rambler Roses, 
Chrysanthemums, Indian Azaleas, Camellias, Greenhouse 
Primroses, Moutan Paeonies, and Garden Clematis have all 
been derived from plants still to be found in a wild state in 
central and Western China. The same is true of a score of 
other favourite flowers. China is also the original home of 
the Orange, Lemon, Citron, Peach, Apricot, and the so-caUed 
European Walnut. The horticultural world is deeply in- 
debted to the Far East for many of its choicest treasures, 
and the debt will increase as the years pass. 



Our knowledge of the marvellous richness of the Chinese 
flora has been very slowly built up. Travellers, missionaries 
of all denominations, merchants, consuls, Maritime Customs 
officials, and all sorts and conditions of men have added 
their quota ; but, as in geography and other departments 
of knowledge relating to the Far East, the Roman Catholic 
priests have played the prominent part. The exclusive policy 
of the Chinese has necessarily increased the difficulties of 
Europeans who sought to acquire an intimate knowledge of 
the country, and all honour is due to the workers who have 
exploited this field in the past. 

On behalf of the Royal Horticultural Society of London 
and others, Robert Fortune, in the 'Forties and 'Fifties of last 
century, completed the work of his predecessors and exhausted 
the gardens of China, to our gardens' benefit ; but the 
difficulties of travel were such that he had practically no 
opportunity of investigating the natural wild flora. With 
the exception of perhaps half a dozen plants, everything he 
sent home came from Chinese gardens. But one of his 
wildlings — Rhododendron Fortunei, to wit — has proved of 
inestimable value to Rhododendron breeders. 

Charles Maries, collecting on behalf of Messrs. Veitch, in 
1879, ascended the Yangtsze as far as Ichang. He found 
the natives there unfriendly, and after staying a week was 
compelled to return. During his brief stay, however, he 
secured Primula ohconica, one of the most valuable decorative 
plants of to-day. Near Kiukiang he secured Hamamelis 
mollis, Loropetalum chinense, and a few other plants of less 
value, and then hied himself away to Japan. For some 
curious reason or other he concluded that his predecessor. 
Fortune, had exhausted the floral resources of China, and, 
most extraordinary of all, his conclusions were accepted ! 
When at Ichang, could he but have gone some three days' 
journey north, south, or west, he would have secured a haul 
of new plants such as the botanical and horticultural world 
had never dreamed of. By the irony of Fate it was left for 
two or three others to discover and obtain what had been 
almost within his grasp. 

The enormous Chinese population, especially in the vicinity 


of the Lower Yangtsze, and its vast alluvial delta and plains, 
no doubt mizzled Maries, as it has done others. So densely 
is China populated that every bit of suitable land has been 
developed under agriculture. A Chinese is capable of getting 
more returns from a given piece of land than the most expert 
agriculturist of any other country. Dry farming and intensive 
cultivation, though unknown to the Chinese under these 
terms, have been practised by them from time immemorial. 
The land is never idle, but is always undergoing tilling and 
manuring. Nevertheless, in spite of the almost incredible 
industry of the Chinese cultivator, much of the land in the 
wild mountain fastnesses of central and Western China defies 
agricultural skill, and it is in these regions that a surprisingly 
varied flora obtains. These regions are very sparsely 
populated, are difficult of access, and, until comparatively 
recently, were totally unknown to the outside world. 

The botanical collections of the two French Roman Catholic 
priests, les Abb^s David and Delavay, of the Russian traveller, 
N. M. Przewalski, and of the Imperial Maritime Customs 
officer, Augustine Henry, gave the first true insight into the 
extraordinary richness of the flora of central and Western 
China. Delavay's collection alone amounted to about 3000 
species, and Henry's exceeded this number ! Botanists 
were simply astounded at the wealth of new species and 
new genera disclosed by these collections. An entirely new 
light was thrown on many problems, and the headquarters of 
several genera, such as, for example. Rhododendron, Lilium, 
Primula, Pyrus, Rubus, Rosa, Vitis, Lonicera, and Acer, 
heretofore attributed elsewhere, was shown to be China. 

This extraordinary wealth of species exists, notwith- 
standing the fact that every available bit of land is under 
cultivation. Below 2000 feet altitude the flora is every- 
where relegated to the roadsides, the cliffs, and other more 
or less inaccessible places. It is impossible to conceive the 
original floral wealth of this country, for obviously many 
types must have perished as agriculture claimed the land, 
not to mention the destruction of forests for economic 

In order to summarize the account of this wonderful flora 


it is convenient to divide the region into altitudinal zones 
or belts. The mountainous nature of the country lends itself 
admirably to such an arrangement, and it is perhaps the only 
feasible way of dealing with a subject so vast and unwieldy. 
The chart (p. 7) represents an ideal section of the region and 
may possibly convey a clearer idea of the subject than the 
text which follows : — 

Division i. — " The belt of cultivation — 2000 feet altitude." 
The climate of the Yangtsze Valley, up to 2000 feet altitude, 
is essentially warm-temperate. Rice, cotton, sugar, maize, 
tobacco, sweet potatoes, and legumes are the principal summer 
crops ; in winter, pulse, wheat, rape, hemp, Irish potato, and 
cabbage are generally grown. It is a region of intense culti- 
vation and the flora is neither rich nor varied. The following 
wild plants are characteristic : Bamboos [Bambusa arundinacea, 
Phyllostachys pubcsccns, and other species) , Fan Palm [Trachycar- 
Pus excelsus), " Pride of India " [Melia Azedarach), Crepe Myrtle 
{Lagerstrcemia indica), Winter Green [Xylosma racemosum, 
var. pubescens), Chinese Banyan [Ficus infectoria), Gardenia 
{Gardenia florida), Roses [Rosa Icevigata and R. microcarpa) , 
Nanmu [Machilus nanmu and other species). Pine {Pinus 
Massoniana), Soap tree [Gleditsia sinensis), Alder {Alnus 
cremastogyne) .Vrivet [Ligustrum lucidum), Paulownia Duclouxii, 
oranges, peaches, and other fruit trees, ferns, especially 
Gleichenia linearis, weeds of cultivation, miscellaneous shrubs 
and trees, including Pterocarya stenopter a, Celiis spp., CcBsalpinia 
sepiaria. Wood Oil [Aleurites Fordii), and Cypress {Cupressus 
funebris) ; the last two occurring particularly in rocky places. 

Division 2. — " Rain forests belt — 2000 to 5000 feet altitude." 
Between 2000 and 5000 feet are found rain forests, consisting 
largely of broad-leaved evergreen trees, mainly Oak, Castan- 
opsis. Holly, and various LaurinecB. The latter family con- 
stitutes fully 50 per cent, of the vegetation in this zone. Ferns, 
evergreen shrubs, Chinese Fir {Cunninghamia lanceolata) , and 
Cypress are other prominent components. This belt is inter- 
esting also as being the home of nine-tenths of the monotypic 
genera of trees that are so prominent a feature of the Chinese 
flora. The more interesting of these are : Eucommia, Itoa, 
Idesia, Tapiscia, Sinowilsonia, Platycarya, Davidia, Carrieria, 


Pteroceltis, and Emmenopterys. Cultivation is less general in 
this region, and the winter crop especially is of less importance. 
The crops are similar to those of the belt below except that 
maize is the staple and displaces rice. In Hupeh this zone is 
much less extensive and can hardly be said to exist when 
comparison with its development in western Szechuan is 

Division 3. — " Cool-temperature belt — 5000 to 10,000 feet 
altitude." From 5000 to 10,000 feet is the largest and most 
important zone of all. It is composed principally of deciduous 
flowering trees and shrubs characteristic of a cool-temperate 
flora and belonging to familiar genera. To these must be 
added forests of Conifers and many ornamental tall-growing 
herbs. It is in this zone that is found the astonishing variety 
of flowering trees and shrubs so pre-eminent a feature of this 
flora : of Clematis 60 species are recorded from China ; of 
Lonicera, 60 ; of Rubus, 100 ; of Vitis, 35 ; of Evonymus, 30 ; 
of Berberis, 50 ; of Deutzia, 40 ; of Hydrangea, 25 ; of Acer, 40; 
of Viburnum, 70 ; of Ilex, 30 ; of Prunus, 80 ; of Senecio, no ; 
and the enumeration might be further extended. Pyrus (in- 
cluding Malus, Sorbus, Micromeles, and Eriolobus) is a promi- 
nent family in the belt, and behaves in China in the same 
manner as Crataegus does in the United States of America. 

Amongst such botanical wealth it is difficult to make 
selections, but if any one genus has outstanding claims it is 
Rhododendron. As in the Himalayan region, so in Western 
China, the Rhododendrons are a special feature. The genus is 
the largest recorded from China, no fewer than 160 species being 
known. I, myself, have collected about 80 species and have 
introduced upwards of 60 into cultivation. Rhododendrons 
commence at sea-level, but do not become really abundant 
until 8000 feet is reached. They extend up to the limits of 
ligneous vegetation (15,000 feet, circa). These plants are 
gregarious in habit and nearly every species has a well-defined 
altitudinal limit. In size they vary from alpine plants only a 
few inches high to trees 40 feet and more tall. The colour of 
their flowers ranges from pure white, tlirough clear yellow to 
the deepest and richest shades of scarlet and crimson. In late 
June they are one mass of colom", and no finer sight can possibly 


25,000 feet 


Snow line 

16,500 feet 

Limit of Vegetation in 
Long. 102°, Lat. 30° 

15,500 feet 

Limit of ligneous 

12,000 feet 
Tree limit 

Limit of Wheat and 
Barley cultivation 




Cushion Herbs 

Alpine Zone 

17,500 feet 

Alpine Deserts 
16,000 feet 

Meadows carpeted 

with Herbs : Primulas, 

Gentians, Cypripediums, 

Meconopsis, Compositse 

Heaths and Moorlands 

covered with scrub : Small- 

ieaved Rhododendrons, Ber- 

beris, Spiraea, Prickly Oak, 

Dwarf Juniper 

Moorlands and Grasslands 

Haunts of 
Nomadic Thibetans 

Rhubarb and other 


Thibetan and 


Sub-Alpine Zone 

Magnificent coniferous Forests 

Headquarters of Spruce family 

Many Rhododendrons 


8500 feet 

Limit of Maize 

Cool-Temperate Zone 

Mixed deciduous Trees and Shrubs, Rhodo- 
dendrons, and Conifers. Tall Herbs 
A wonderful region of Flowers and Autumnal tints 
Wheat, Maize, and Irish Potato staple crops 
Varnish trees, Walnuts 

11,500 feet 

Wheat and Barley 
staple crops 

Timber Lands 
10,000 feet 

Fine scenery 

5000 feet 

4000 feet 
Rice limit 



Temperate Zone 

Rain forest. Evergreen region : chiefly Oaks, Laurine^, 
Hollies, Cunninghamia, Pines, monotypic genera, Ferns, etc. 
Rice, Maize, Sweet Potato ; much cultivated 




Warm-Temperate Zone 

Highly cultivated. Rice principal summer crop, Wheat winter crop. 

Cypress, Pine, Wood Oil, Bamboos, Palms, Oranges, Vegetable Tallow, 

Insect white-wax. Densely populated 

River level 



be imagined than mile upon mile of mountain-side covered with 
Rhododendrons in full flower. 

Division 4. — " Temperate alpine belt — 10,000 to 11,500 feet 
altitude." Above 10,000 feet in Western China the character 
of the flora undergoes a great change, and the narrow belt be- 
tween 10,000 and 11,500 feet forms the hinterland between the 
temperate and alpine zones. This narrow belt is mostly moor- 
land, but where the nature of the country admits, magnificent 
forests occur. The moorlands are covered with dwarf, smaU- 
leaved Rhododendrons and scrub-like shrubs, chiefly Berberis, 
Spiraea, Caragana, Lonicera, Potentilla fruticosa, P. Veitchii, 
and HippophcB salicifolia, with Willow, prickly Scrub Oak, 
coarse herbs, grasses, and impenetrable thickets of dwarf 
Bamboo. The forests are composed almost exclusively of 
Conifers, chiefly Larch, Spruce, Silver Fir, Hemlock Spruce, 
and here and there Pine. A few trees of Red and White Birch 
and Poplar occur, chiefly near streams. Specifically very 
little is known about the constituents of these forests, but, to 
illustrate their wealth, I may mention that on my last journey 
I collected seeds of some 16 different species of Spruce and 
5 of Silver Fir. These forests are, unfortunately, fast dis- 
appearing, and are only to be found in the more inaccessible 
regions. The tree-limit varies according to rainfall, and may be 
put down as between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. 

Division 5. — " The alpine belt — 11,500 to 16,000 feet 
altitude." The alpine zone extends from 11,500 to 16,000 feet. 
The wealth of herbs in this belt is truly astonishing. Their 
variety is wellnigh infinite, and the intensity of the colour 
of the flowers is a striking feature. The genus Pedicularis 
(Louseworts) , with 100 species, is perhaps the most remarkable 
constituent. The Louseworts are largely social plants and 
occur in countless thousands, their flowers being all colours 
save blue and purple. They are really most fascinating plants, 
and it is a great pity that their semi-parasitic nature prevents 
their cultivation. The Ragworts [Senecio), with 100 species, 
have yellow flowers, and the plants vary in size from low cushion- 
like plants to strong herbs 6 feet tall. Blue is supplied by 
the Gentians {Gentiana), of which there are 90 species. These 
again are social plants, and on sunny days the ground for miles 


is often nothing but a carpet of Gentian flowers of the most 
intense blue. The Fumeworts (Corydalis), with 70 species, 
supplies both yellow and blue flowers and cannot be denied 
a place. Then there are the wonderful alpine Primroses 
{Primula). This family is represented in China by some 
90 species, four-fifths of which occur in the west. These, 
like Gentians, take unto themselves in season large tracts of 
country and carpet them with flowers. Sometimes it is a 
marsh, at other times bare rock or the sides of streams. One 
of the most beautiful is Primula sikkimensis. Along the sides 
of streamlets and ponds this species is as common as the 
Cowslip in some English meadows. Associated with it is 
its purple congener P. vittata. Other striking species are P. 
Cockhurniana, with orange-scarlet flowers, a colour unique 
in the genus ; P. pulverulenta, a glorified P. japonica, with 
flower-scapes 3 to 4 feet tall, covered with a white meal and 
flowers of a rich purple colour ; and P. Veitchii, which is best 
described as a hardy P. obconica. Other striking herbs are 
Incarvillea compacta and /. grandiflora, both with large scarlet 
flowers, and Cypripedium tiheticum, a terrestrial orchid with 
enormous pouches, dark red in colour. Also we have 
Meconopsis in half a dozen species, including M. Henrici, with 
violet-coloured flowers ; M. punicea, with dark scarlet flowers ; 
and M. integri folia, with yellow flowers 8 inches or more across 
— possibly the most gorgeous alpine plant extant. 

Division 6. — " High alpine belt." The limit of vegetation 
is about 16,500 feet ; a few cushion-hke plants belonging to 
Caryophyllacece, Rosacece, CrucifcrcB, and Compositce, with a 
tiny species of Primula and Meconopsis racemosa being the last 
to give out. Above this altitude are vast moraines and 
glaciers, cuhninating in perpetual snow. The snow-line cannot 
be less than 17,500 feet. Although at first sight remarkable, 
the high altitude of the snow-line is easily accounted for by the 
dryness of the Thibetan plateau and the highlands to the im- 
mediate west. 

Having briefly outlined the different altitudinal zones 
and instanced some of the more striking plants characteristic 
of each, it may be of interest to point out the more important 
absentees. In China there is no Gorse {Ulex), Broom (Cytisus), 


Heather {Erica), nor Ling {Calluna) ; the Rock-rose family 
{Cistus and Helianthemum) is also unrepresented. The place 
of Gorse and Broom is inadequately taken by Forsythia, 
Caragana, Berberis, and various Jasmines ; that of Heather by 
dwarf, tiny-leaved Rhododendrons, of which there are a dozen 
or more species. The Cistus family has no representative 
group unless Hypericum be considered its substitute. 

There is practically no pasture-land in central and Western 
China, but such open country as would compare with commons 
in England is covered with bushes of Berberis, Spiraea, Sophora 
viciifoUa, Caragana, Pyracantha, Cotoneaster, Philadelphus, 
Holly, and various Roses. The anomalous conditions obtain- 
ing in the river-vaUeys of the west and the peculiar flora found 
there have been described in Vol. I, Chapter XII. 

Another interesting fact, and one that has peculiar reference 
to the flora of western Hupeh, is the number of plants bearing 
the specific name japonica, which are only Japanese by 
cultivation and are really Chinese in origin. The following 
well-known plants are examples : Iris japonica, Anemone 
japonica, Lonicera japonica, Kerria japonica, Aucuba japonica, 
Senecio japonicus, and Eriohotrya japonica. Possibly some of 
these (and there are many more) may be common to both 
countries, but I am convinced that when the subject is properly 
worked out, it will be found that fewer plants are common to 
both countries than is generally supposed to be the case. 

The Chinese flora is largely peculiar to the country itself, 
the number of endemic genera and species being remarkable 
even when the size of the country is given due consideration. 
Yet, in spite of its generally local character, the Chinese flora 
presents many interesting problems in plant distribution. 
Not the least interesting is to account for the presence of a 
species of Libocedrus (L. macrolepis), seeing that the other 
members of this genus are found in California, Chili, and New 
Zealand. Another noteworthy feature is a species of Osteo- 
meles [0. Schwerince), which occurs in the far west of China, the 
other member of this family being found scattered through the 
islands of the Pacific Ocean. But perhaps the most extra- 
ordinary fact in this connexion is the presence on Mount Omei 
of a species of Nertera [N. sinensis), the other members of this 


family being purely insular and confined to the Southern 

The affinity of the Chinese flora, with contiguous and 
distant countries, is an interesting theme and one that could be 
enlarged upon at length. The Himalayan flora is represented 
by certain species in Western and central China, and there 
is a considerable affinity between the floras of these regions. 
This is to be expected, yet it presents problems of exceptional 
interest, since it is theSikhim element whichcomes out strongest. 
When the flora of Bhutan and of the country between Bhutan and 
Western China is properly explored it will probably be found 
that Sikhim represents the most western point of distribution 
for certain plants rather than their real headquarters. Of 
Himalayan plants commonly met with in the region, with which 
this work is intimately concerned, the following examples 
may be given : Evonymus grandiflora, Euptelea pleiosperma, 
Clematis montana, C. grata, C. gouriana, Rosa sericea, R. 
microphylla, Primula sikkimensis, P. involucrata, Podophyllum 
Emodi, and Amphicome arguta. In Yunnan there is a decided 
affinity with the Malay-Indian flora. 

The aggressive nature of the Scandinavian (British) flora 
is evidenced by the following herbs and shrubs which are 
locally very common : Vervain {Verbena officinalis), Agrimony 
[Agrimonia Eupatoria), Buttercups {Ranunculus acris, R, 
repens, and R. sceleratus), Silver- weed {Potentilla anserina), 
Great Burnet {Poterium officinale), False Tamarisk {Myricaria 
germanica), Ivy {Hedera Helix), Bird Cherry {Prunus Padus), 
and Plantain {Plantago major) . 

In the north and throughout the upland valleys and high- 
lands of the west a few Central Asian and Siberian forms occur, 
such as Sibircea Icevigata, Spircea alpina, Cotoneaster multiflora, 
Thalictrum petaloideum, Delphinium grandiflorum, and Lonicera 

At first sight it would very naturally be supposed that the 
Chinese flora was most closely allied if not to that of Europe 
at least to that of the Asiatic continent generally. Yet this 
is not so. The real affinity is with that of the Atlantic side 
of the United States of America ! 

This remarkable fact was first demonstrated by the late 



Dr. Asa Gray when investigating the early collections made in 
Japan. Modern work in China, and especially central China, 
has given overwhelming evidence and established beyond 
question Asa Gray's conclusions. There are many instances 
in which only two species of a genus are known — one in the 
eastern United States and the other in China. Noteworthy 
examples are the Tulip tree, Kentucky Coffee tree, the Sassafras, 
and the Lotus Lily [Nehimbium). A considerable number of 
families are common to both countries, and in most instances 
China is the dominant partner. Usually the U.S.A. have one 
and China several species of the same genus, but here and 
there the opposite obtains. Magnolias afford a good illustra- 
tion of this affinity. This genus, absent from Europe and 
western North America, is represented by 7 species on the 
Atlantic side of the North American continent, and by 19 
species in China and Japan. 

The following brief Hst still further illustrates this : — 


China and Japan 

United States of Aw 


Genus No. 

of Species 



of species 

















Hamamelis . 




Shortia . 


Shortia . 






Negundo (Acer) 


Negundo (Acer) 






Astilbe . 


Astilbe . 


Podophyllum . 


Podophyllum . 


Illicium . 












Nyssa . 


Nyssa . 


In a few cases the same species is common to both countries. 
The most extraordinary instance of this is Diphylleia cymosa 
(Umbrella Leaf). This plant occurs in localities separated by 
140° of longitude and exhibits absolutely no marked variation. 

In the instances mentioned above, the families are absent 


from any other region in the world. In others, — for example, 
Oak, Hornbeam, Elm, Birch, Ash, Beech, and Sweet Chestnut, 
— where the families range around the whole temperate zone 
of both Old and New Worlds, the individual Chinese species are 
usually more closely akin to those of North America than to 
those of Europe. 

The explanation of this phenomenon is to be found in the 
glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere in prehistoric times. 
In those far-off times the land connexion between Asia and 
North America was far more complete than it is to-day, and 
the flora extended much farther to the north. The ice-cap 
which gradually crept down forced the flora to travel towards 
the equator. Later, when the period of great cold was over, 
and the ice-cap receded, the plants crept back ; but the ice-cap 
remained at a more southern latitude than before, and conse- 
quently rendered much of the land formerly covered with 
forests too cold to support vegetable life of any sort. This 
rearrangement after the Ice Age caused a break between the 
two hemispheres, and the consequent isolation and cutting 
off of the floras. Other agencies and factors played a part, 
but the above explains briefly and roughly why the floras 
so much alike should to-day be so widely separated geo- 

That the Chinese flora is an ancient one is evidenced by 
the number of old types it contains. For example, in ancient 
times. Ginkgo hiloha (Maidenhair tree) was found, not only in 
Asia, but in Western Europe, Northern California, and Green- 
land, as the fossil remains found in Jurassic beds of these 
countries testify. To-day it exists only in China and Japan 
as a cultivated tree, being preserved to us by the Buddhist 
and other religious communities who plant it in the neighbour- 
hood of their temples. Cycas, Cephalotaxus, Torreya, and 
Taxus are other old types, but these occur in a wild as well 
as in a cultivated state in China to-day. Many of the older 
ferns, such as Osmunda, Gleichenia, Marattia, and Angiopteris, 
are common in China and widely spread. In speaking of the 
older ferns it may be of interest to note that Augustine Henry 
discovered in Yunnan an entirely new genus of Marattiacece, 
which has been named Archangiopteris. 


From the evidence before us it would appear that the 
Chinese flora suffered less during glacial times than did that 
of Europe and North America. This may possibly have been 
due to the greater continuity of land towards the equator 
which obtains in Asia as compared with that of the continents 
of Europe and America. 


THE forested regions of China are to-day remote from 
the populous parts of the country, and are only to be 
found in the more wildly mountainous parts, which are 
little suited to agriculture, and where the rivers are unnavigable 
rock-strewn torrents, and roads, as such, can scarcely be said 
to exist. Such districts are always at considerable elevation 
and are but sparsely peopled. In all the more accessible 
regions agriculture has claimed the land, and the trees are 
only met with around houses, temples, tombs, stream-sides, 
or crowning cliffs. The scarcity of timber is acutely felt 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. Dressed 
logs and poles are carried long distances to navigable water- 
ways and floated either down or up-stream, consequently 
their cost is high. The ports on the sea-board and lower 
Yangtsze import timber in quantity for general construction 
purposes from Puget Sound and British Columbia. A certain 
amount also comes from Japan. Hardwoods for miscellaneous 
purposes are imported from various parts of Malaysia, and a 
certain amount of Jarrah wood for railway work has recently 
been sent from Australia. The famous blackwood furniture 
of China is not made of native wood, but of timber imported 
from Bangkok, Saigon, and other places in Indo-China. 
Botanically the source of " Chinese blackwood" is unknown. 
The so-called " Bombay blackwood " is derived from Dalbergia 
latifolia, and possibly the " Chinese " kind is from a closely 
allied species. Western China is rather better off for timber 
than other parts of China, and fortunately so, since the 
importation of timber as a business is utterly impossible. 
Nevertheless there is a great dearth of wood for building 
purposes, and timber prices have doubled during the^ last 



decade. The massive timbers to be seen in old Chinese temples 
and houses are now unobtainable from the native trees of 

Since the scarcity of timber is so great, every kind of tree 
found in the thickly populated regions furnishes wood of 
some value, but for the purpose of this chapter it suffices to 
give a brief account of the more important kinds and those 
most generally useful. 

By far the most important " timber " in China is, of course, 
the stems of the Bamboo. The Jesuit priest, Trigault, in a 
work on China, published in 1615, states : " They have a kind 
of reed called Bambu by the Portuguese. It is almost as hard 
as iron. The largest kind is scarcely encompassed with two 
hands. It is hollow inside and presents many joints outside. 
The Chinese use it for pillars, shafts of lances, and for 600 other 
domestic purposes." 

Although three centuries have elapsed since the above 
quotation was written it applies equally to the conditions 
of the present day, for the uses to which the Bamboo is 
put in China are indeed limitless. It supplies many of the 
multifarious needs of the people with whose everyday 
life, from birth to death, it is inseparably entwined. From 
Bamboo stems are fashioned the various household utensils, 
furniture, the house itself, many agricultural implements, masts 
and gear for boats, rafts, ropes, bridges, irrigation-wheels, 
water-pipes, gas-pipes, tubes for raising brine, sedan-chairs, 
tobacco and opium-pipes, bird-cages, snares for entrapping 
insects, birds, and animals, umbrellas, raincoats, hats, soles 
for shoes, under-shirts, sandals, combs, musical instruments, 
ornamental vases, boxes, and works of art, the pen (brush) 
to write with, the paper to write upon, everything, in fact, 
useful and ornamental, from the hats of the highest officials 
to the pole with which the coolie carries his load. Formerly 
the records of the race were written on bamboo tablets which 
were strung together at one end like a fan. Records of this 
description, dug up in a.d. 281, after having been buried for 
600 years, were found to contain the history of Tsin from 
784 B.C., and incidentally also that of China for 1500 years 
before that date. 



Bamboo shavings are used in caulking boats and for 
stuffing pillows and mattresses. The young shoots are a 
valued vegetable. According to popular belief, in times of 
scarcity a compassionate Deity causes the Bamboo to flower 
and yield a harvest of grain to save the people from starvation. 

The Bamboo flourishes everywhere in the Far East, and 
is just as beautiful when sheltering the peasant's cottage or 
beggar's hut as when ornamenting the courtyards of temples 
and the mansions of the wealthy. It is the one woody plant 
that is really abundant throughout all but the coldest parts 
of the Middle Kingdom. The Occident possesses no tree or 
shrub which for all-round general usefulness compares with 
the Bamboo of the Orient. 

The Chinese generic name for the Bamboo family is 
" Chu," the different kinds being distinguished by a prefix. 
The natives have no difficulty in recognizing the various 
species, but botanists generally have found Bamboos 
exceedingly difficult to deal with systematically. In the 
Index FlorcB Sinensis 33 species are enumerated, but for the 
purpose of this chapter only 4 or 5 species are involved. 

Throughout the Yangtsze Valley, up to about 2500 feet 
altitude, the " Pan chu " [Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the 
commonest species. Its young spear-like stems rear them- 
selves 30 to 40 feet, and finally develop into beautiful arched 
plumes. The stems are about 3 or 4 inches in diameter, 
dark shining green, becoming yellow with age. The wood is 
moderately thick and is used for a great variety of purposes. 
It is largely employed on the Yangstze, above Ichang, for 
making tracking lines for the various river craft. A species allied 
to this, but smaller in every way, never exceeding 20 feet in 
height, is the Ch'ung chu (P. heteroclada) . This Bamboo is 
commonly used in western Hupeh for paper-making. 

A very common species in the warmer parts of Szechuan 
is the " Tz'u chu" {Bambusa arundinacea, often called B. 
spinosa), the Spiny Bamboo. This magnificent species pro- 
duces stems 50 to 75 feet tall and 8 to 10 inches in diameter 
at base. It does not spread very much, but forms compact 
clumps, which are impenetrable on account of their density 
and the presence of innumerable, slender, ferociously spiny 

VOL. II. — 2 


stems which develop among and around the larger culms. This 
Bamboo has a small core and very thick wood. It is used in 
household carpentry, for furniture, ornamental vases, boxes, 
and scaffolding, and has a hundred and one other uses. 

Another species is the Nan chu [Dendrocalamus giganteus), 
the largest growing of all the Bamboos found in western 
Szechuan. This is confined to the warmer parts of the province, 
where it forms wide-spreading groves. The stems grow 60 
to 80 feet tall and are 10 or 12 inches thick. The core is 
very large, the wood thin and light. It is commonly used 
for constructing the rafts which ply on the shallow but 
turbulent rivers of western Szechuan. It has also many 
other uses and is especially prized for making chop-sticks. 

Yet another very commonly cultivated species is Bambusa 
vulgaris, sometimes called the Kwanyin chu, which produces 
pale-coloured stems 30 to 50 feet tall. The wood is thin 
and is used for a variety of purposes, but is less valuable than 
any of the foregoing. The young shoots of these large-growing 
Bamboos are cut just as they appear above the ground, and 
eaten as a vegetable, the flesh being white, firm and crisp. 

Apart from Bamboo the most common timber for all- 
round use is that derived from the " Sha shu," or " China 
Fir" {Cunninghamia lanceolata). This coniferous tree is widely 
spread throughout warm-temperate parts of China and is 
especially partial to red sandstone. It is particularly abundant 
in the Yachou Prefecture and on the mountains bordering the 
north-west corner of the Chengtu Plain. It grows from 80 
to 120 feet tall, and has a straight mast-Hke stem ; after 
the trees are cut down this Conifer reproduces itself by 
sprouts from the old stumps. The bark is commonly 
employed for roofing purposes. The wood is light, fragrant, 
and easily worked. For general building purposes, house- 
fittings, and indoor carpentry it is the most esteemed of all 
Chinese timbers ; also it is in great request for cofiin-making, 
the fragrant properties of the wood being considered to act 
as a preservative. For ordinary cofftns several logs are 
dressed and fastened together laterally to form a thick, wide 
plank called " Ho-pan," four of which, with two end pieces 
added, make a coffin. All who can afford it have such coffins 



lacquered a shiqing jet-black. But the more expensive 
coffins are those in which each Ho-pan is hewn from a single 
log of timber, and the most valuable of all are those made 
from Hsiang Mu (fragrant wood), or Yin-chen Mu (long- 
buried wood). For such a coffin 400 to 1000 ounces of silver 
is the usual price. For the most part, Yin-chen Mu comes 
from the Chiench'ahg Valley, where it was probably engulfed 
as the result of an earthquake in times past. In 1904 I 
ascended the Tung Valley from Fulin to Moshi-mien, en route 
for Tachienlu, and near the hamlet of Wan-tung came upon 
a place where natives were engaged in excavating buried 
timbers. The work was being carried on in a narrow valley. 
At the head of the valley a torrent had been dammed up 
and the accumulated waters, released at will from time to 
time through a sluice, carried much of the overlying debris 
away. Many of the excavations were fully 50 feet deep. 
All sorts of timber is found buried in this place, but only 
the " Hsiang Mu " (fragrant wood) is considered of value. I 
procured a specimen of this wood, and subsequent microscopic 
examination has proved it to be that of C. lanceolata. The 
Chinese consider that these trees have been buried for 
two or three hundred years. The timber is wonderfully 
preserved and is more compact in texture and more fragrant 
than that of recently felled trees. Ho-pans made from 
" Hsiang Mu " average about 30 inches wide and 7 feet in 
length. In all my travels in Western China I have seen 
only one living specimen of Cunninghamia approaching to 
the size of these long-buried giants. 

In Chengtu and neighbouring cities, the timber known as 
" Lien sha," derived from Ahies Delavayi and allied species, is 
generally employed for all the larger beams, pillars, and planking 
in house-building. This handsome Silver Fir [Abies Delavayi) 
is common on all the higher mountains of the west, but that 
growing in the Yachou prefecture is most accessible, and this 
district is the main source of the timber-suppty. The timber is 
soft and not very durable, but the large size of the logs render 
it most serviceable. The Pine [Sung shu) is very common, the 
most widely distributed species being Pinus Massoniana. This 
tree ascends from sea-level to 4000 feet altitude. The timber 


obtained from the higher ahitudes is close-grained, resinous, and 
durable, but that from low-levels is soft, very open, and of 
little value. Other Hard Pines, such as P. Henryi, P. densata, 
P. Wilsonii, P. prominens, are found at higher altitudes (up to 
10,000 feet) and yield valuable timber, but unfortunately they 
occur only in inaccessible places. The Chinese White Pine (P. 
Armandi) is widely spread in the more mountainous parts. 
This tree never attains any great size, but the timber is very 
durable and resinous. It is esteemed for building purposes and 
for making torches. 

All the Conifers yield useful timber, but unfortunately few 
are found to-day in accessible regions. Around Tachienlu the 
Hung sha (Red Fir), Larix Potaninii, is esteemed the most 
valuable of all timbers. The Tieh sha {Tsuga yunnanensis, T. 
chinensis) is made into shingles for roofing purposes and 
is also valued for planking. In the Lungan prefecture the 
Me-tiao sha {Picea ascendcns) is a most valuable timber for 
general building purposes. Many other kinds of Spruce [Picea) 
occur on the mountains, and with Silver Fir [Ahies) and Larch 
{Larix) form the only remaining Conifer forests in Western 
China. Juniper (Hsiang-peh sha), Juniperus saltuaria, is 
common north of Sungpan, where it is valued for building 
purposes. Cupressus torulosa (K'an-peh sha) occurs in the arid 
valleys of the west ; Taxus cuspidata, var. chinensis (Tuen- 
ch'u sha), and Keteleeria Davidiana (Yu sha or Oil Fir) are 
found scattered all over Western China between 2000 and 
5000 feet altitude, but are nowhere reaUy abundant. 

From Ichang westward, up to 3500 feet altitude, the com- 
monest Conifer next to Pine is the Peh sha or White Fir [Cu- 
pressus funehris) , and in the more rocky limestone regions it is 
the more common tree of the two. This handsome Cypress, 
with its pendant branches, is generally planted over tombs and 
shrines and in temple grounds. The wood is white, hard, heavy, 
and exceedingly tough. It enters largely into the structure of 
all boats plying on the Upper Yangtsze, forming the sides, 
bulkheads, and often the cross-beams and decks. It is also 
made into chairs, tables, and other furniture. The superstruc- 
ture of the boat is usually of Sha Mu [Cunninghamia) , the 
bottom and main timbers of Oak and Nanmu. 



Oak is widely dispersed from river-level to 8000 feet altitude, 
but large trees are scarce except in the vicinity of tombs, shrines, 
and other sacred places. A general name for the family is 
"Li," and the Chinese distinguish many kinds, such as Peh-fan, 
Hwa, Hung, Tueh, and Chu li ; botanically about a score of 
species occur in this region, of which the commonest are Quercus 
serrata, Q. variabilis, and Q. aliena. All yield close-grained 
timber, highly valued for a variety of purposes apart from 

Nanmu (Southernwood) includes a number of species of 
Machilus and Lindera. All are evergreen and singularly hand- 
some trees. They are largely planted around homesteads and 
temples in Szechuan, and are a prominent feature of the 
scenery of parts of the Chengtu Plain and around the base of 
Mount Omei. They grow to a great size and have clean, straight 
trunks and wide-spreading, umbrageous heads. The timber is 
close-grained, fragrant, greenish and brown in colour, easily 
worked, and very durable. It is highly esteemed for furniture- 
making, and for pillars in the temples and the houses of the 
wealthy. As planking it is used for boat bottoms. Nanmu 
is one of the most valuable of all Chinese timbers, and the tree 
itself among the handsomest of evergreens. Camphor (Ch'ang 
shu), Cinnamomum Camphora, is found scattered over western 
Hupeh and Szechuan up to 3500 feet altitude, and its fragrant 
timber, like that of Nanmu, is made into high-class furniture. 
The wood furnished by the thick main roots of this tree is known 
as " Ying Mu " and is valued for cabinet work. 

For high-grade cabinet work, picture frames, and the very 
best furniture the timber most highly esteemed in Szechuan is 
the " Hung-tou Mu," derived from Ormosia Hosiei, a tree 
allied to the Sophora. In the spring 0. Hosiei produces large 
panicles of white and pink pea -shaped flowers, and at all 
seasons of the year is a striking tree. The wood is heavier than 
water, of a rich red colour, and beautifully marked. It is the 
most high-priced of all local timbers, and is now very scarce. 
In north-central Szechuan it is still fairly common, but on the 
Chengtu Plain it is only found in temple grounds or over shrines. 
The native name signifies " Red Bean tree," the seeds being red 
and contained in bean-like pods. Allied to the foregoing is 


Dalbergia hupeana, which yields the valuable " T'an Mu," a 
wood whitish in colour, very heavy, and exceedingly hard and 
tough. It is almost exclusively employed in building the wheel- 
barrows used on the Chengtu Plain ; for the handles of carpenters' 
tools, rammers for oil-presses, blocks and pulleys used on boats, 
and for every purpose where stress and strain obtain. This 
tree grows tall (80 feet) but is never of any great thickness ; 
it is widely spread in the west up to 3000 feet altitude. 

Three other members of the Pea family that yield useful 
woods of greater or less value, are the " Huai shu " {Sophora 
japonica, " Tsao-k'o shu" {Gleditsia sinensis), and " Yeh-ho 
shu" [Albizzia lebbek). All three species are common, the 
first two forming a characteristic feature of the vegetation of 
the more arid river-valleys of the west. The wood of these trees 
is used in general carpentry and furniture-making. 

One of the commonest trees throughout the hot, rather arid 
river-valleys, up to 8500 feet altitude (but by no means confined 
thereto), is Juglans regia, the Walnut (Hei-tou shu). It is 
cultivated for its fruits, which are a valued article of food and 
a source of oil. The wood has recently become in great demand 
in the newly established arsenals for making rifle-stocks. The 
supply is not equal to the demand, and much Nanmu timber is 
used as a substitute. This latter is lighter and less serviceable 
for this purpose than that of the Walnut. 

The best rudder-posts are made from the wood of the 
"Huang-lien shu" [Pistacia chinensis), a large-growing tree 
found everjrvvhere up to 5000 feet altitude. A log having a 
natural " fork " at one end is in general use for the balance- 
rudder on all the larger boats. The wood of the Loquat 
(Pi-pa shu), Eriobotrya japonica, which is red-coloured, heavy, 
and of great strength, is also employed for this purpose. The 
young shoots of the Pistacia, known as " Huang-ni ya-tzu," are 
cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and so also are the shoots 
of the " Ch'un-tuen shu" {Cedrela sinensis). This last-named 
tree furnishes a valuable timber, beautifully marked with rich 
red bands on a yeUowish-brown ground. Foreigners call it 
Chinese Mahogany, It is easily worked, does not warp nor 
crack, and is esteemed for making window-sashes, door-joists, 
and furniture. The tree grows 80 feet tall, the trunk is very 


straight, and but little branched. It is quite common in 
western Hupeh up to 4500 feet altitude, but much less so in 

Tea-chests for all the higher-grade teas are made of wood 
derived from the Chinese Sweet Gum (Feng-hsiang shu), 
Liquidamhar formosana. This is a strikingly handsome tree, 
growing 80 to 100 feet tall, with a girth of 12 to 15 feet. It 
occurs scattered all over the west up to 3500 feet altitude ; 
the leaves turn a rich red-brown in autumn and remain on the 
trees far into the winter. 

The best carrying poles are made from the " Tzu-k'an 
shu" {Ehretia acuminata and E. macrophylla) , the wood of 
these trees being light but very tough. Oak and Bamboo 
are also used for the same purpose and are cheaper. For 
making the drums used on boats and in temples the wood of the 
" Tzu-ch'in shu " {Kalopanax ricinifolium) is considered best, 
being easily worked, pliable, and resonant. The two ends of 
the drum are covered with hide. 

The finest Joss-sticks (Chinese incense) are composed of 
the pounded leaves and branches of various members of the 
Laurel family {Laurinece) , all of which are rich in fragrant, 
essential oils. As an adulterant the pulped wood of Cypress 
and Birch is commonly employed. 

On the barren hills around Ichang and elsewhere the 
Common Pine (Sung shu), Pinus Massoniana, has been planted 
as a source of fuel. Along the stream-sides and canals on 
the Chengtu Plain, Alder (Ching shu), Alnus cremastogyne, is 
generally planted for the same purpose. The Alder and 
Pine, together with Bamboo, are the only trees planted for the 
economic value of their timber. On the mountains, Beech, 
Ash, Poplar, Sweet Chestnut, Hornbeam, Birch, and many 
other valuable and useful timber trees occur, but are difficult 
of access and consequently not in general use. 


CHINA is the original home of several fruits which are 
now cultivated all over the world, as, for example, the 
orange, lemon, pomelo, peach, and Japanese plum. In 
the south a number of tropical fruits, such as banana, pine- 
apple, papaw, areca-nut,litchi, longan,and " Olives" [Canarium), 
are grown, but only the last three, and these in very small 
quantities, are found in the regions with which we are con- 
cerned. In the north, more especially around Chefoo, apples 
and pears, introduced from America, are cultivated and very 
excellent fruit is produced. In the north, too, very fine 
grapes are grown, and the fruit generally is of a high order. 
But, in general, little attention is given to fruit-culture ; pruning 
the trees and thinning the fruit is not attended to, with the 
result that nearly all Chinese fruit is lacking in quality. 
Usually it is gathered before it is properly ripe, and this has 
much to do with the absence of flavour which is unfortunately 
characteristic. Particularly is this indifference and neglect 
evident in central and Western China, where a very con- 
siderable quantity and variety is grown. The oranges, peaches, 
and persimmons are equal to those obtainable anywhere, but 
all the other succulent fruits are of very low-grade quality. 
It is to be regretted that more attention is not given to the 
subject, for the region could undoubtedly be made to produce 
the very best of fruits. 

In ascending the Yangtsze River, from where the foothills 
commence below Ichang, and westward to Sui Fu, Orange- 
groves are a feature, attaining their greatest luxuriance between 
Chungking and Lu Chou. In December, when the trees are 
laden with ripe fruit, these groves are a remarkable sight. The 
Orange is happiest when growing on the leeside of rocky 




escarpments, or at their base, where it is protected from the 
winds. It is very partial to the clayey marls and sandstones 
of the Red Basin. In western Szechuan the loose-skinned 
or Mandarin Orange {Citrus nohilis) is most generally grown. 
In season the fruit can be purchased on the spot at the rate 
of 500 to 1000 for a shilling. Unfortunately this orange does 
not keep well, but when removed and dried the rind constitutes 
a favourite medicine known as " Chien-yiin-p'i." The fibres 
and pithy substance surrounding the fleshy carpels within 
the rind also form a medicine which is called " Chii-lo." In 
the gorges a tight-skinned or Sweet Orange, " Shan K'an-tzu " 
(C. Aurantium, var.), is more usually met with. The so-called 
Ichang orange of this type is noted far and wide in China. 
It has a higher market-value than the " Mandarin " and 
keeps well. In Chengtu these oranges are kept fresh and good 
all through the summer, but by what process I failed to 

A Lemon (C. ichangensis) is also grown in the Ichang 
Gorge, but is not common. The fruit of this species is broadly 
oval in shape and of excellent flavour. Pomelos, " Yo-tzu " 
(C. decumana, var.), are met v/ith, but the fruit seldom 
contains any pulp worthy of the name, consisting usually of 
little but pith and seeds. The Kumquat (C. japonica) is 
sparingly cultivated for its fruits, which, preserved with sugar, 
are an esteemed delicacy. A Citron (C. Medica, var. digitata) 
is also occasionally grown for its curious-looking fruit which 
is known as " Fingered Citron," or " Buddha's Hand." 

The Orange and allied fruit trees are propagated by notching 
the shoots which arise from the base of the tree and fixing earth 
around the cut. A framework of bamboo or a broken earthen- 
ware pan is used to keep the soil in place. When many roots 
have been formed in the heaped-up soil a final severance of the 
shoot from the parent tree is made, and in due course the new 
plant is removed to a permanent site. Boring-insects are 
unfortunately making sad havoc among the Orange-groves 
in Western China. No attempt at prevention or control is 
made by the owners, and nothing but the wonderful vitality 
of the tree saves it from extinction. 

The Peach, " Tao-tzu " {Prumis Persica), is abundantly 


cultivated in Hupeh and Szechuan from river-level to 9000 
feet altitude. Freestone and clingstone varieties and oval and 
flattened kinds occur ; those from the vicinity of Ichang are 
of delicious flavour and are probably not excelled anywhere in 
the world. The climate more than anything else is responsible 
for this, since the trees are little cared for and generally covered 
with the San JosI scale-insect. The trees are grown in orchards 
or in small groups around houses, but sub-spontaneous bushes 
are met with everywhere by the wayside and on cliffs. An oil 
is extracted from the kernels in northern China, but not in 
the western parts of the Empire, as far as my observation goes. 

The Peach was introduced into Asia Minor and Europe 
from Persia somewhere about 300 B.C., but it has been cultivated 
in China from very remote times and was probably carried 
to Persia by way of the old trade route via Bokhara. Whilst 
it is now accepted that China is the original home of this 
invaluable fruit, it is by no means certain as to what particular 
plant represents the wild type. A species found in northern 
China and known as P. Davidiana is generally regarded 
as the source of origin of the cultivated peach. From this 
view I, however, dissent. My opinion is that the species are 
distinct, and that the type of the garden peach is no longer 
to be found in a wild state. The nearest to it is the sub- 
spontaneous form, plants of which are abundant on the cliffs 
and by the waysides all over western Hupeh and Szechuan. 
In this connexion it may be of interest to record that in the 
neighbourhood of Tachienlu I discovered a new species of 
Peach which has since been named P. mira. This plant is a 
typical freestone Peach in every respect, but has a small, 
smooth, ovoid stone. It is now in cultivation, and, coming 
as it does from a very cold climate, may eventually prove the 
progenitor of a hardier race of cultivated Peaches. 

The Apricot (P. Armeniaca) is generally supposed to 
be a native of Armenia, as its name implies, from whence it 
was introduced to China, where it has long been cultivated ; 
but Maximowicz regarded it as spontaneous in the mountains 
near Peking. The Apricot tree grows to a large size (40 to 
50 feet), but the fruit, known as " Hun-tzu," is fibrous and 
very harsh in flavour. There is room for the improved 


varieties of apricot in China, as the dried apricots prepared 
in northern India, which find their way across Thibet to 
Western China, are highly esteemed by Thibetans and Chinese 

Plums, " Ku-li-tzu," are commonly cultivated, the fruits 
being round in shape and either green, yellow, red, or purple 
in colour, but all are of indifferent flavour. All these culti- 
vated forms are derived from P. salicina, a tree common in 
the thickets and margins of woods throughout Hupeh and 
Szechuan. Under the name of Japanese Plum this species 
has been introduced into California, Europe, and elsewhere, 
and is now widely cultivated. Authentic specimens of the 
species from which the plums cultivated in Europe have been 
derived (P. communis) have not been recorded from China, 
and very probably it does not occur there. The Japanese 
Apricot (P. mume), so widely cultivated in China and 
Japan, where it is dwarfed and trained into curious shapes 
and much appreciated for its early flowering propensities, is 
wild in western Hupeh and Szechuan, being known as " Oo- 
me." The fruit is round, usually red on one side and yellow 
on the other, of indifferent flavour, and rendered less palatable 
by its felted, woolly stone. 

The Common Almond is not grown in China, but in 1910, 
near Sungpan, I discovered an allied species, since named 
P. dehiscens, in which the ripe fruit opens and exposes 
the stone. The kernel of this fruit is eaten and locally is 
much esteemed. The plant forms a very dense, spiny bush, 
5 to 12 feet tall, and is very abundant in the upper reaches of 
the Min Valley. The fruit may be described as " dry," since 
hardly any " flesh " is developed. This species is now in 
cultivation, and is certainly an interesting addition to the 
Almonds hitherto grown. 

Cherries, " Ying-tao," are abundant in the woods and forests 
and run riot in species. In Plantce Wilsoniance, Part II, 
Koehne describes no fewer than 40 species based on material 
collected by me alone ! The Cherry is, however, rarely culti- 
vated, and such fruit as is on sale at Ichang and elsewhere 
is small and lacking in flavour. Its chief merit is in being the 
fii-st stone-fruit of the season, coming into the market the 


end of April. The Cherry cultivated around Ichang is P. 
involucrata. The species from which the European cherries 
have been derived {P. avium and P. Cerasus) are not 
found in China. 

The Pear, "Li-tzu," is very generally cultivated and is 
especially abundant throughout the upper reaches of the river- 
valleys in the west. It is also common in the higher parts 
of the glens which lead off from the gorges in western Hupeh. 
Several kinds are grown, and in some instances the fruit 
attains a very large size. Usually these pears are as hard as 
rock, and though very useful for cooking purposes are of little 
value for dessert. Propagation by crown-grafting is commonly 
practised, but little attention is given to the trees afterwards. 
All the varieties of Chinese pears have been evolved by long 
cultivation from native species (probably Pyrus sinensis, 
P. ussuriensis, and another species not yet authentically named, 
but known in China as the " Tang-li "), and have not common 
origin with those cultivated in the Occident which have been 
derived from P. communis. Around Peking the Chinese 
cultivate a peculiar kind of Pear under the name of " Peh-li- 
tzu " (WTiite Pear). The fruit is apple-shaped, about if 
inches in diameter, pale yellow in colour, and of most delicious 
flavour. This pear is probably a superior variety of Pyrus 

Apples are much more sparingly cultivated than pears, 
with which they are grown in association. They are more 
frequent around Sungpan Ting and Tachienlu than in Hupeh. 
The fruit is small, green, or greenish-yellow on one side and rosy 
on the other in the best variety, with an agreeable bitter-sweet 
flavour. It is uncertain as to what species these apples belong, 
but possibly to Malus spectabilis, M. pruni/olia 

The Quince, " Mu-kua," is commonly cultivated in central 
China, but less so in the west. The fruits are oiled and kept 
as ornaments in houses, being appreciated for the fragrant 
odour. They are also used as medicine. Two species occur — 
Chaenomeles sinensis with nearly round leaves and dark red 
flowers and C. cathayensis with elongated leaves and white 
flowers, flushed pink. Closely allied to the quince is Docynia 
Delavayi, which is very abundant in Yunnan, where the fresh 


fruits known as " Tao yi " are used in ripening persimmons. 
The fruits of each are arranged in alternate layers in large jars 
and covered with rice-husks, and in ten hours the persimmons 
are bletted and fit for eating. The Docynia occurs sparingly in 
western Szechuan, but in that locality the fruit is not utilized. 

The Loquat, " P'i-pa " {Eriobotrya japonica), both wild and 
cultivated, occurs in quantity up to 4000 feet altitude, and is 
most abundant in rocky places. This handsome evergreen 
forms a tree 30 feet tall, and produces its fragrant white 
flowers in the early winter, the fruit being ripe in April, 
The fruit is orange-coloured, of a pleasant sub-acid flavour, 
but there is very little "flesh" surrounding the large, soft 
brown seeds, which have an almond-like taste and might be 
used for flavouring purposes. 

In different parts of China various species of Hawthorn, 
" Shan-li-hung-tzu " or " Shan-cha," are cultivated for their 
fruits. In Hupeh the species thus favoured is Cratcegus 
hupehensis ; orchards of this tree occur in the neighbourhood 
of Hsingshan Hsien. The fruit is scarlet, nearly i inch in 
diameter, but of insipid flavour. 

One of the most delicious of all fruits grown in China is the 
Persimmon, " Tsze-tzu " {Diospyros kaki). The Persimmon 
tree is abundant up to 4000 feet altitude, and usually forms 
handsome specimens 60 feet or more tall. The fruit may be 
ovoid or flattened-round, and with or without seeds. It is 
not really edible until dead ripe, at which stage all the tannic 
acid is dissipated or changed into sugar. The Chinese have 
various methods of ripening this fruit to bring out its full 
flavour. The process, in the main, consists in stratifying and 
covering them with rice-husks and admitting only a modicum 
of air. Persimmons are often allowed to remain on the trees 
long after the leaves have fallen, and the masses of orange- 
coloured fruits on such trees present a wonderful sight. 

In the neighbourhood Lu Chou are cultivated Litchis 
{Nephelium Litchi) and Longans (A'', longana) as orchard 
fruits. They thrive very well in this district, and the fruits 
command high prices in the market. The Chinese Olive [Can- 
arium album) is also grown in the same locality. In the arid 
river valleys of the west the Chinese Date-plum, " T'sao-tzu " 


{Zizyphus vulgaris), is frequently cultivated, but the quality of 
the fruit is very poor, and cannot compare in size and flavour 
with that produced in Shantung and other parts of north-eastern 
China. In the warmer parts the Pomegranate, " Tsze-niu " 
{Punica Granatum), is commonly met with, but the fruit is 
scarcely edible. In Yunnan very fair pomegranates are grown. 
Although widely spread and naturalized in parts of China, 
competent authorities consider the Pomegranate to have been 
introduced there. 

Grapes, " Chia-p'u-tao," are sparingly cultivated in the 
west, but the quahty is very inferior to those grown around 
Peking. The only kind I have seen has white fruit. The 
varieties commonly cultivated are all forms of Vitis vinifera, 
which, according to Bretschneider, was introduced into China 
from Western Asia during the second century B.C. Around 
Kiukiang the Spiny Vitus, " P'u-tao-tzu " (F. Davidii), is 
sometimes cultivated. This vine produces black, globose 
grapes of good size and appearance, but the flavour is very 
harsh. It occurs as a common wild plant in the mountains of 
the west. 

The Walnut, " Hei-tao " {Juglans regia), is an exceedingly 
common tree throughout the regions with which we are con- 
cerned, ranging up to 8500 feet altitude. It is especially 
abundant in the arid river valleys of west Szechuan, and equally 
so in the mountains and valleys of Hupeh. The nuts vary 
considerably in size, shape, and in the thickness of the shell. 
The best are of large size and have very thin shells. They are 
valued not only as a food but for their sweet-oil, which is ex- 
pressed and used for culinary purposes. A Butternut, " Yeh 
Hei-tao" (/. cathayensis) , is also common in the woods and 
thickets. The kernels are eaten, but the shell is very thick 
and difficult to crack. 

The seed of the Maidenhair tree, " Peh-k'o " [Ginkgo hiloha) , 
after being roasted is esteemed as a dessert nut. The seed 
of the Lotus Lily, " Lien hwa" [Nelumbium speciosum), Ground- 
nut, " Lao-hua-tsen " {Arachis hypogcBo), are similarly valued. 
The Water-chestnut, " Ling-chio " [Trapa natans), is abund- 
antly cultivated and the fruit is eaten. 

In the woods and thickets many kinds of wild fruits are 



found which are eaten locally. Brambles (Rubus) in great 
variety occur, over 100 species being recorded from China. The 
majority yield edible fruit, and in some cases this is superior 
to any found elsewhere in the world. I have succeeded in 
introducing about 30 species, and look forward to the day when 
some one will seriously take up the culture of brambles and by 
hybridizing them evolve a new race of berries to add to the 
soft fruits at present in cultivation. The three best of the 
new introductions, according to my own palate, are Rubus 
pilcatus, R. aniabilis, and R. corchorifolius, all vinous-flavoured, 
raspberry-like fruits. The black fruits of R. omeiense and R. 
flosculosus are also good eating, as are the orange or red coloured 
fruits of R. biflorus, var. quinquefiorus, R. innominatus, and R. 
ichangensis. At Ichang in early spring the raspberry-like fruit 
of R. parvi/olius is commonly on sale, being locally known as 
" Ts'ai-yang-p'ao-tzu." (The term " P'ao-tzu " is comprehen- 
sive, covering berries generally.) At Sungpan in August it is 
possible to secure fruit of the dwarf R. xanthocarpus in quantity 
for a few cash pieces. 

In the mountains during June and July wild strawberries 
are plentiful, and the fruit is of delicious flavour. Two kinds 
occur — the white-fruited Hautboy, " Ti-p'ao-tzu " {Fragaria 
elatior), and the red-fruited " She-p'ao-tzu " {F. filipendula). 
At Tachienlu, where cream from yak milk is obtainable, I have 
enjoyed many a dish of strawberries and cream, and also straw- 
berry pie. "" By the roadsides the Indian Strawberry [F. indica), 
also called " She-p'ao-tzu," is everywhere abundant up to 
3000 feet altitude. The brightly-coloured but flavourless fruit 
of this plant is considered poisonous by the Chinese. 

In the woods species of Currant {Ribcs) with both red and 
black fruit are common. One species {R. longeracemosum) 
bears large, black fruit of good flavour, on racemes i^ foot 
long ! This plant is now in cultivation, and should be 
utiUzed as a parent by the hybridist. A Gooseberry {R. 
alpestre, var. giganteum) is a common hedge-plant throughout 
the Chino-Thibetan borderland between 8000 and 11,000 feet 
altitude. The small, round, green-coloured fruit is, however, 
extremely harsh in flavour. A Strawberry tree, " Yang-mei," 
is common in the margins of woods and thickets between 2000 


to 6000 feet altitude, throughout Hupeh, and less so in western 
Szechuan. The flattened-round red fruit is rough on the ex- 
terior, very juicy, and of fair flavour. In the above region the 
tree so named is Cornus kousa. In Yunnan the vernacular name 
is applied to C. capitata, an allied species, but in south-eastern 
China the " Yang-mei " is Myrica rubra, a relative of our 
Sweet Gale, and belonging to a widely different family. 

A climber called " Yang-tao " in Hupeh and " Mao-erh-tao " 
in Szechuan {Actinidia chinensis) is very abundant from 2500 to 
6000 feet altitude. It produces excellent fruit of a roundish or 
oval shape, i inch to 2\ inches long, with a thin, brown, often 
hairy skin covering a luscious green flesh. This is an excellent 
dessert fruit, and makes a fine preserve. In 1900 I had the plea- 
sure of introducing this fruit to the foreign residents of Ichang, 
with whom it found immediatefavour,andis now known through- 
out the Yangtsze Valley as the " Ichang Gooseberry." I also 
was privileged to introduce it into European cultivation, and it 
fruited in England for the first time in 1911. This valuable 
climber has, in addition to its edible fruit, ornamental foliage 
and shoots, and large, fragrant flowers, white fading to buff- 
yeUow. It is a good garden plant ; the only drawback is that 
the flowers are polygamous, and it is necessary to secure the 
hermaphrodite form to ensure fruit. Several other species of 
Actinidia yield edible fruits of fair flavour, one of the best 
being A. ruhricaulis, which is now in cultivation. 

The Chinese eat the white inner pulp of the pod-like, purple 
fruits of several species of Holbcellia ; these plants known as 
" Pa-yueh-cha " are stout climbers. The teat-like fruits of 
several species of Elceagnus, known as " Yang-mu-nai-tzu," are 
also eaten. These have a rather pleasant acid flavour, but are 
usually astringent in character. The fleshy, thickened fruit- 
stalks of Hovenia dulcis, called " Kuai-tsao," are eaten to annul 
the effects of wine. 

Sweet Chestnut trees are abundant in the woods up to 7500 
feet altitude, and excellent nuts, known as " Pan-li," are pro- 
duced. Several species occur, one of the most common and 
widely diffused being Castanea molUssima. As scrub on the 
hiUs up to 3500 feet altitude, the Chinese Chinquapin, " Mao 
Pan-li " (C. Seguinii), is very abundant. Bushes only 2 feet 


tall produce quantities of small, good-flavoured nuts, but the 
best are from bushes 5 to 8 feet tall. The best eating chestnuts 
are, however, those of C. Vilmoriniana. This species makes a 
large tree 60 to 80 feet tall, and has glabrous leaves and a single 
ovoid nut within each spiny fruit. It is very distinct from all 
the other members of its family. The acorns of several kinds of 
Oaks and the nuts of different species of Castanopsis are also 
eaten by the peasants. This is true of different Hazel-nuts, 
" Shan-peh-k'o " {Corylus spp.), and Beech-nuts {Fagus spp.). 

A Nut Pine [Pinus Armandi) is abundant on the mountains 
from 3500 to 9000 feet, and the seeds are eaten locally. These 
seeds, however, are not much sought after, and are far from 
having the economic importance of the Corean Nut Pine (P. 
koraiensis) . 

The " Wampi " (Clausena punctata) is sparingly grown 
around Lu Chou. 

VOL. (I.— 3 


NATIVE practitioners in China have very crude ideas of 
human anatomy, and to be able to " read " the pulse is 
proof positive of medical skill. Certain foreign drugs 
like quinine are highly esteemed, but on the whole their faith is 
in native medicines. Inoculation for smallpox has long been 
practised, so also has acupuncture for rheumatism, and the value 
of mercury for certain diseases is well known and it is largely 
employed. The Chinese materia medica is probably the most 
varied and comprehensive known. It includes all sorts of the 
most extraordinary things, ranging from tiger bones to bat's 
dung, and worse. It is principally, however, vegetable, and the 
majority of plants found in China are considered to possess 
medicinal properties to a greater or less extent. Of all this 
vast array only rhubarb and liquorice have any real value 
in Occidental practice. The majority of Chinese drugs are 
supposed to possess tonic and aphrodisiac properties, and the 
higher a drug is estimated in these respects the greater its 
commercial value, as witness ginseng and deerhorns in velvet. 
The " Father of Chinese medicine " is the Emperor Shen- 
nung, who, according to legend, ruled from 2737-2697 B.C. 
This same emperor is also the " God of Agriculture." We 
are told that Shen-nung went very deeply into the study of 
herbs, in order to find remedies for the diseases of his people. 
He is said to have been very successful in his investigations. 
As an example of his energetic pursuit of this study, it is 
declared that in one day he discovered 70 poisonous plants 
and as many that were antidotes to them. Tradition is also 
responsible for the native belief that he had a glass covering 
to his stomach, in consequence of which he could watch the 


process of digestion of each herb and mark its influence on 
the system. A pharmacopoeia, said to have been written by 
him, formed the nucleus of the " Pun-tsao " or Herbal, a 
great work on the Chinese materia medica. In every druggist's 
shop of repute there is an image of Shen-nung, and he is looked 
upon as the presiding deity of the business. 

The Herbal above referred to was published about a.d. 1590, 
and its compiler, one Li Shi-chin, spent 30 years in collecting 
the information. He consulted some 800 previous authors, 
from whose writings he selected 15 18 prescriptions, and added 
374 new ones, arranging his materials in 52 chapters in a 
methodical and (for his day) scientific manner. The work, 
which is usually bound in 40 octavo volumes, was well received, 
and attracted the notice of the emperor, who ordered several 
succeeding editions to be published at the expense of the 
State. It was, in fact, so great an advance on all previous 
books, that it checked future writers on the subject, and Li 
is likely now to be the first and last Chinese critical writer on 
Natural Science in his mother tongue. 

Many curious statements naturally occur in this extensive 
old work. For example : " The heart of a white horse, or 
that of a hog, cow, or hen, when dried and rasped into spirit, 
and so taken, cures forgetfulness." " Above the knees the 
horse has night-eyes (warts), which enable him to go in the 
night ; they are useful in the toothache," Another is : " If a 
man be restless and hysterical when he wishes to sleep, and it 
is requisite to put him to rest, let the ashes of a skull be mingled 
with water and given him, and let him have a skull for a pillow 
and it will cure him." 

Some very extraordinary remedies are practised to-day. 
For example : Human milk is supposed to give strength to 
enfeebled old age. It is considered a meritorious filial act for 
daughters, granddaughters, and others to thus succour their 
aged relatives. In Chungking in 1908 an extraordinary case 
came to my knowledge. A native doctor informed a young 
woman that the only way to save her mother's life was to 
administer to her a portion of human liver. This daughter 
took a large knife and deliberately plunged it into her own 
body and cut away a portion of her liver. Dr. Asmy, a noble, 


self-sacrificing German doctor, working among the Chinese 
in Chungking, was informed of the case immediately after it 
took place, and succeeded in saving the self-mutilated woman's 
life. Dr. Asmy has the piece of liver preserved in spirit and 
kept as a memento in his hospital. Among the Chinese soldiers 
of the old school it was firmly believed that to eat the heart 
of a brave enemy was a sure way of obtaining the courage 
he possessed. 

These nauseating and nonsensical ideas, however, are not 
all taken from the Chinese Herbal, and much as we may feel 
disposed to smile at the advice contained in this work, it is 
well to remember that Western literature on medicine of the 
same period contains very much the same sort of instruction. 
In Europe as late as the end of the sixteenth century plants 
were looked upon from a purely utilitarian point of view, 
not only by the masses, but also by very many professed 
scholars. Just as men lived in the firm belief that human 
destinies depended upon the stars, so they clung to the notion 
that everything upon the earth was created for the sake of 
mankind ; and, in particular, that in every plant there were 
forces lying dormant which, if liberated, would conduce either 
to the welfare or injury of man. People imagined they 
discerned magic in many plants, and even believed that they 
were able to trace in the resemblance of certain leaves, flowers, 
and fruits to parts of the human body, an indication emanating 
from supernatural powers, of the manner in which the organ 
in question was intended to affect the human constitution. 
The similarity in shape between a particular leaf and 
the liver did duty for a sign that the leaf was capable of 
successful application in cases of hepatic disease, and the 
fact of a blossom being heart-shaped must mean that it would 
cure cardiac complaints. Thus arose the so-called Doctrine 
of Signatures, which, brought to its highest development by 
the Swiss alchemist, Bombastus Paracelsus (1493-1541), 
played a great part in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
and still survives at the present day in the mania for nostrums. 

In ancient Greece there was a special guild, the " Rhizo- 
tomoi," whose members collected and prepared such roots 
and herbs as were considered to be curative, and either sold 

I 5 


them themselves or caused them to be sold by apothecaries. 
The " Medicine Guild" in China to-day performs much the 
same work, and its origin is long anterior to the Greek Rhizo- 
tomoi. If, then, Chinese pharmacology is to-day several 
centuries behind that of the Occident, there was a time when it 
was equally far in advance. Marco Polo makes many references 
to the value of Chinese drugs. For example : "All over the 
mountains of the province of Tangut, rhubarb is found in 
great abundance, and thither merchants come to buy it, and 
carry it thence all over the world." 

All parts of the Chinese Empire contribute something to the 
native pharmacy, but, with the exception of ginseng, cassia- 
bark, camphor, and areca-nut, nearly all the more highly 
valued drugs come from the forests and scrub-clad highlands 
of the west. The famous drug, ginseng, the root of Aralia 
quinquefolia, comes from Corea and Manchuria, and the best 
quality sells for its weight in gold. To the Chinese this drug 
is the radix vUcb, restoring strength, vitality, and power to old 
and young. So precious is this " life-giving root " that the 
best plants are, in theory, reserved entirely for the emperor's 
use. On the Chinese system this drug unquestionably acts as 
a strong restorative, tonic, and aphrodisiac, adverse Western 
opinion notwithstanding. In the forests of the west certain 
" bastard ginsengs " occur, but are little valued. 

Cassia-lignea, the bark, buds, and leaves of Cinnamomum 
Cassia, comes from certain districts (Luk-po, Lo-ting) in Kwang- 
tung and (Tai-wu) in Kwangsi, provinces in the south, where 
it is largely cultivated and exported to all parts of the Empire 
and elsewhere. Cassia-bark, " Kuei-p'i," is valued as a tonic, 
stimulant, and condiment. Areca-nut, the seed of a palm 
{Areca catechu), occurs in these southern provinces, and 
also in Yunnan. It is also imported from Cochin-China. 
Betel-chewing is not in general vogue among the Chinese, who 
value the nuts more as a medicine, chiefly as an astringent and 

Camphor is in general use all over China. The most 
valued kind is the Baros Camphor [Dryohalanops Camphora) , 
imported from Malaysia (Borneo), the camphor produced 
in Japan, Formosa, and Fokien from Cinnamomum Camphora 


being less esteemed, and chiefly valued for purposes of export 
to other parts of the world. The Chinese value Baros Camphor 
as a tonic and aphrodisiac. 

The Imperial Maritime Customs offtcials have paid con- 
siderable attention to Chinese medicines, and in 1889 a list 
was published by order of the Inspector-General, the late Sir 
Robert Hart. This list was compiled from the Returns of 
each Treaty port, and an attempt was made therein to identify 
the plants yielding the drugs and to give their province of 
origin. The difficulties besetting such a task were enormous, 
but much good work was accomplished. Consul-General 
Hosie, in his Report on the Province of Ssuch'uan, has compiled 
a list of Szechuan medicines which very accurately represents 
the present state of our knowledge on this subject. Not until 
a complete collection of herbarium material covering flowers 
and fruits is made, and the whole submitted for identification 
to some one or other of the great herbaria in Europe, will it be 
possible to assign correct scientific names to a vast number of 
these medicines. 

Hosie's list comprises 220 different kinds, of which number 
189 are of vegetable origin. The trade importance of drugs 
is enormous ; the exports passing through the Maritime 
Customs, at the port of Chungking, in 1910, being valued 
at over Tls. 1,540,000 ; those from Hankow at over 
Tls. 1,780,000. 

I do not propose entering into a detailed account of the 
Chinese medicines, but will briefly note a few of the more 
important and their uses, which may not be without interest. 
Perhaps the most generally useful drug known from China is 
rhubarb, " Ta-huang." The Rhubarb plant occurs through- 
out the highlands of the Chino-Thibetan borderland, but, as in 
the days of Marco Polo, the best comes from the " Province of 
Tangut." This region stretches from Sungpan in a north- 
westerly direction, and includes part of the modern province of 
Kansu. Rhubarb is found growing among scrub and near 
rocky watercourses between 7500 feet and 12,500 feet altitude. 
It is also commonly cultivated, but the wildling is esteemed the 
best drug. The finest rhubarb is obtained from the plant 
known botanically as Rheum palmatum, var. tanguticum, and 


this is the variety most commonly met with throughout the 
extreme north-west of China and the contiguous Thibetan 
regions. From Tachienlu are exported considerable quantities 
of a second-grade rhubarb, which is mainly derived from 
R. officinale, although the variety tanguticum also occurs 
sparingly in that neighbourhood. Other species of Rheum 
grow in the west, and are used as adulterants. In north- 
western Hupeh R. officinale occurs in the forests, and is also 
cultivated by the peasants, but the quality of the drug is very 
poor. The so-called " Tangut regions" enjoy a dry, sunny 
climate, and curing the drug is a much easier task than in 
the other districts mentioned. This also probably affects the 
quality. In China, rhubarb is valued as a purgative, and is 
employed in the same way as in the Occident. 

The best liquorice, " Kan-tsao " (Sweet-herb), is also a 
product of the grasslands north-west of Sungpan ; inferior kinds 
grow elsewhere in China. The source of the Sungpan product 
has been identified as Glycyrrhiza uralensis. It is valued as an 
emollient, and small quantities enter into nearly every pre- 
scription intended for internal application. The drug known in 
the vernacular as " Ch'ung-tsao " is a caterpillar infested with 
the mycelium and the projecting fructification of a Fungus 
{Cordyceps sinensis). This is another valued product of the 
western uplands, where it is found at from 12,000 to 15,000 
feet altitude. The body of the caterpillar is yellowish, the 
fructification of the fungus black, the two together being stick- 
like in appearance and about 5 inches in length. As a medi- 
cine it is esteemed for a variety of purposes — boiled with pork 
it is employed as an antidote for opium-poisoning and as a 
cure for opium-eating ; also with pork and chicken it is taken 
as a tonic and mild stimulant by convalescent persons, and 
rapidly restores them to health and strength. 

The tiny white bulbs of the Fritillary {Fritillaria Roylei, 
and other alHed species), known as " Pei-mu " or " Jen Pei-mu," 
constitute one of the most highly valued medicines from the 
alpine regions of the west, where the plants grow at from 
12,000 to 15,000 feet altitude. Large quantities of this drug are 
exported from Monkong Ting and Tachienlu. The bulbs are 
pounded, then boiled with dried orange skin and sugar. The 


resultant is taken as a cure for tuberculosis and asthma. In 
Hupeh the pseudo-bulbs of two terrestrial Orchids, Pleione 
fogonioides and P. Henryi, are used for the same purpose, and 
are known as " Ch'uan Pei-mu." These plants grow on moist, 
humus-clad rocks in the woods between 3000 and 5000 feet 

In clearings in the woods throughout western Hupeh and on 
Mount Omei plantations of Huang-lien [Coptis chinensis) are 
maintained as a profitable investment. The dried rhizome is 
an all-round medicine, and particularly valued as a stomachic. 
An infusion is considered a cure for dyspepsia ; used by women 
nursing children, it is said to promote the flow of milk ; pounded 
and mixed with the white of eggs it is applied as a poultice to 
boils. Personally I can testify that it makes an excellent and 
appetizing bitters. 

The thickened roots of a number of umbelliferous plants are 
esteemed for their medicinal virtues, as tonics and blood puri- 
fiers generally. One in general use and commonly cultivated 
is " Tang-kuei " [Angelica polymorpha, var. sinensis). An ex- 
tract obtained by boiling the root-stock of Platycodon grandi- 
florum, a campanulaceous plant known locally as " Chieh- 
k'eng," is a cure for chill in the stomach. The small pods of 
Gleditsia officinalis, " Ya-tsao," sliced and boiled with "Tang- 
kuei," forms an infusion which is considered a certain cure for 
coughs and colds. 

For medicinal purposes the Aconite, " Tsao-wu-tu " {Aconi- 
tum Wilsonii), is cultivated, the powdered root being mixed 
with the white of eggs and applied externally as a remedy 
for boils. The " Ch'uan-wu-tu " {A. Hemsleyanum, and other 
climbing species) has similar uses to the foregoing. Also after 
frequent boilings the root is used in minute quantities as a 
drastic cure for coughs. Another twining herb, " Tang-shen " 
[Codonopsis tangshen), is commonly cultivated in the moun- 
tains, the thickened root-stock being valued as an all-round 

The barks of many trees are used in medicine, and the 
identification of these is not so difficult as in the case of the herbs. 
One of the most esteemed is " Hou-p'o " [Magnolia officinalis). 
The best quality bark is worth 1000 cash per ounce. An 


extract is taken as a tonic, aphrodisiac, and a certain cure for 
colds, all in one. The dried flower-buds of this tree called 
" Yu-p'o " yield an extract by boiling which is taken by women 
to correct irregularities of menstruation. 

The bark of Eucommia ulmoides, " Tu-chung " or " Tsze- 
mien," is pounded and boiled, the extract being taken with 
wine and pork as a cure for troubles of the kidney, liver, and 
spleen. It is also supposed to be a diuretic and aphrodisiac, 
and is a valuable general tonic. The bark of Picrasma 
quassioides, " Ku-lien-tzu," yields, on boiling, an extract 
which is used in cases of colic and pains in the stomach gener- 
ally ; also as a febrifuge. The bark of Phellodendron chinense, 
" Huang-po " or " Huang-peh," is a complete materia medica 
in itself, it being used internally and externally as a general 
remedy for almost every ailment known to the Chinese, and, 
being cheap, is a poor man's " cure-all." 

These selected examples, although few in number, are 
perhaps suf&cient for the purpose of this chapter. Un- 
doubtedly many of the drugs used by the Chinese possess 
sound medicinal properties, and their proper investigation is 
well worth the attention of Occidental pharmaceutists. 


Favourite Flowers Cultivated by the Chinese 

ORNAMENTAL gardening has been practised in China 
from time immemorial, and the people are endowed 
with an innate love for flowers and gardens. Floral 
calendars are kept in every house above the poorest, and 
volumes of poems have been written in praise of the Moutan 
Paeony, Camellia, Plum, Chrysanthemum, Lotus-lily, Bamboo, 
and other flowers. The appearance of the blooms on the more 
conspicuous flowering shrubs is eagerly watched for, and ex- 
cursions into the country are taken to enjoy the sight of the 
first bursting into blossom of favourite plants. The dwelling 
of the poorest peasant is usually enlivened by an odd plant 
or two, and the courtyard of the shopkeeper and innkeeper 
always boasts a few flowers of one sort or another. The 
temple grounds are frequently very beautiful, and attached to 
the houses of the cultured and wealthy are gardens often of 
great interest. In the neighbourhood of wealthy cities like 
Soochou, Hanchou, and Canton, are public and private 
gardens which are famed throughout the length and breadth 
of the Empire. The finest example I have seen is fittingly 
associated with the emperor's summer palace, a few miles 
outside Peking. There Chinese gardening may be seen at 
its best, and it calls forth admiration from all visitors. 

Chinese landscape-gardening is represented at its best in 
the so-called " Japanese gardens " of to-day. The Japanese 
have undoubtedly carried the art to a higher state of perfec- 
tion than the Chinese, but the latter unquestionably originated 
it. In all these gardens the love of the grotesque predominates, 
and the landscape effect is essentially artificial ; yet in accord- 




ance with their own ideals the Chinese are most skilful and 
accomplished gardeners. Given a piece of ground, no matter 
if it be small, and devoid of all natural beauty, or badly situated, 
they will patiently transform it into a mountain-landscape 
in miniature. With strange-looking, weather-worn rocks, 
dwarfed trees, bamboos, herbs, and water, a piece of wild 
country-side is evolved replete with mountain and stream, 
forest and field, plateau and lake, grotto and dell. A network 
of narrow winding paths traverses the garden, and rustic 
bridges in various designs are thrown across the infantine 
streams. The whole effect is often encompassed within a 
comparatively few square yards, though the perspective is 
one of seemingly many miles. In all the larger gardens, 
closely associated with and usually in part overhanging a pool 
where the Lotus-lily is grown, a small pavilion is erected. 
Here the proprietor and his guests resort to drink tea or wine, 
chat, and admire the various flowers. When no male guests 
are present the garden is frequented by the female members 
of the family, with whom it is ever a favourite sanctum. 

The Chinese do not cultivate a very great variety of 
plants, and the contents of the various gardens are much the 
same, though necessarily the selection is modified by climate 
and locality. To all the flowers grown in Chinese gardens some 
peculiar significance or aesthetic value is attached. An orchid 
{Cymhidium ensifolium), called " Lan hwa," is regarded as 
the "king of flowers," the modest appearance of the plant, 
and the delicate odour of its blossoms, representing the very 
essence of refinement. The " Mei hwa " {Prunus mume), owing 
to the beauty and perfume of its flowers, which are produced 
in winter when few plants are in blossom, is very highly prized 
and regarded as a " flower of refinement." Around Peking 
the same vernacular name and attributes are attached to 
P. triloba and its double-flowered form. The Winter- 
sweet, " La-mei hwa " {Meratia prcecox), is similarly esteemed. 

The various Bamboos, emblems of grace and culture, and 
beautiful at all seasons of the year, are indispensable garden 
plants. " No man can live without a Bamboo tree in the 
immediate vicinity of his house, but he can live without meat," 
is a favourite Taouist saying. The Chrysanthemum, " Chu 


hwa," and Moutan Pseony are other " flowers of refinement " 
almost reverently appreciated for the colour and beautiful 
form of their flowers. The Lotus-lily, " Lien hwa " [Nelunibium 
speciosum) , is regarded as an emblem of purity, and the Goddess 
of Mercy (Kwanyin) is always represented seated in the centre 
of a Lotus flower. The Chinese " Luck Lily " or " Water 
Fairy " {Narcissus tazetta) is cultivated in vast quantities, 
more especially throughout the eastern part of the Empire, 
and is in blossom for the New Year festival. It is appreciated 
for its odoriferous flowers, and its luxurious growth is considered 
prophetic of wealth and prosperity. This Narcissus is not a 
Chinese plant, but is a native of the Mediterranean region, from 
whence it was long ago introduced into China by Portuguese 
traders, and it together with the Pomegranate are virtually 
the only exotic flowers in high favour with the Chinese. 

The Pearl Orchid, " Chu-lan hwa " {Chloranthus incon- 
spicuus), is valued for the delicate odour of its flowers, which 
are used in the Anhui province in scenting green tea for the 
Chinese market. Table grass [Liriope spicata) is admired for 
its graceful habit, and is placed on a desk or table, to afford 
rest to the eyes when reading or studying. Lastly in this 
relation may be mentioned the " Hoary Pine," which is 
emblematical of revered old age. This name is applied to 
several kinds of Conifers other than Pinus proper. 

To complete the list of favourite Chinese flowers we may 
enumerate Camellia, Heavenly Bamboo, " Tien-ch'u " {Nandina 
domestica), " Kuei hwa " [Osmanthus fragrans), " Tzu-ching " 
{Lagerstrcemia indica), " Tiao-chung " [Enkianthus quinque- 
florus), " Chin-yin hwa" [Lonicera japonica), numerous 
varieties of Azaleas, Roses, Balsams, Cockscombs, double- 
flowered Peaches, various Conifers, and Box {Buxus jap- 
onica). Some or all of the above are to be found in every 
Chinese garden of note. Though the cultural skill expended 
on many of them is in the direction of dwarfing and training 
into grotesque shapes, this treatment in no sense robs the 
flowers of the qualities attributed to them in literature and 
song. The decoration found on Chinese porcelain well 
illustrates the nation's love of beautiful flowers and quaint- 
shaped trees. 


China is a land of contrariety — a land whereof no general 
statement or observation holds good. In spite of their love 
for the grotesque and the artificial landscapes seen in their 
gardens, the Chinese have a strong appreciation of natural 
beauty. This is evidenced by the sites chosen for their temples 
and shrines and for the tombs of the wealthy. Apart from 
situation, which is usually perfect, such sanctuaries always 
nestle beneath theshade of magnificent trees, and areapproached 
as a rule through avenues or groves of large trees. Though a 
few deciduous trees are commonly found, evergreens always 
have distinctive preference. In the temple grounds around 
Peking are noble avenues of Arbor-vitae [Thuya orientalis), 
Juniper {Juniperus chinensis), Elm [Ulmus pumila), and 
Sophora (5. japonica) ; in the south, centre, and west of the 
Empire, Pine [Pinus Massuniana), China Fir [Cunninghamia 
lanceolata) , Cypress {Cupressus funehris), Nanmu [Machilus 
nanmu, and allied species), " Yu-la shu " [Photinia Davidsoniai), 
Wintergreen [Xylosma racemosum), Banyan [Ficus infectoria), 
and a few other kinds of trees are always present. Many of 
these trees are extremely rare, except in the precincts of 
religious sanctuaries. 

The world at large does not reahze how deeply it is indebted 
to religious communities for the preservation of many trees. 
In Europe, for example, most of the best varieties of Pears 
originated in the gardens attached to religious establishments 
in France and Belgium and were introduced into England 
and other countries after the battle of Waterloo. In China, 
where every available bit of land is devoted to agriculture, 
quite a number of trees must long ago have become extinct but 
for the timely intervention of Buddhist and Taouist priests. 
The most noteworthy example of this benevolent preserva- 
tion is the Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo hiloha). This strikingly 
beautiful tree is associated with temples, shrines, courtyards 
of palaces, and mansions of the wealthy throughout the 
length and breadth of China, and also in parts of Japan. But 
it is nowhere truly wild, and is a relic of a very ancient flora. 
Geological evidence shows that it is the last survivor of an 
ancient family, which flourished during Secondary times, and 
can even be traced back to the Primary rocks. In Mesozoic 


times this genus played an important part in the arborescent 
flora of north-temperate regions. Fossil remains, almost 
identical with the present existing species, have been found, 
not only in this country and North America, but also in 

Though to-day Chinese gardens, nurseries, and temple 
grounds do not contain anything new in the way of ornamental 
or economic plants, it was otherwise up to the middle of the 
last century. Our early knowledge of the Chinese flora was 
based on plants procured from gardens, notably from those 
around Canton. The plants were brought to Europe by trading 
vessels, especially those of the East India Company, at the 
end of the eighteenth and early in the nineteenth centuries. 
Different patrons of horticultural and botanical institutions 
in England lent financial assistance, and collectors were dis- 
patched to investigate and send home all that they could 
possibly find. 

By these means our gardens first secured the early varieties 
of Roses, Camellias, Azaleas, greenhouse Primroses, Gardenias, 
Moutan Paeonies, Chrysanthemums, Chinese Asters, and such- 
like familiar plants. The Chrysanthemum, for instance, has 
been cultivated in China and Japan from time immemorial, 
and its parent forms [Chrysanthemum sinense and C. indicum) 
are common wild flowers around Ichang and elsewhere in 
China. In Europe C. sinense was first cultivated in Dutch 
gardens as early as 1689, no less than six kinds being then 
known. But these were subsequently lost, and when the 
plant was again introduced in 1789, through the agency of 
Sir Joseph Banks, the plant was unknown to Dutch gardeners. 
The famous gardener, Philip Miller, cultivated C. indicum. in 
the Chelsea Physic Gardens in 1764, it having been discovered 
in 1751, near Macao, south China, by Osbeck. This species 
has, however, had much less to do in the evolution of our 
present-day Chrysanthemum than C. sinense. 

The parent of our Tea Roses is Rosa indica, the Chinese 
Monthly Rose, long cultivated in China and still to be found 
wild in the central and western parts of the Empire. It was 
introduced into England through the efforts of Sir Joseph 
Banks in 1789. The parent of our greenhouse Primroses 



[Primula sinensis) was introduced from Canton into the 
garden of Thomas Palmer, Esq., of Bromley, Kent, by John 
Reeves about 1820. It is a native of Hupeh, where it occurs 
in great abundance on the dry, precipitous, limestone cliffs 
of the Ichang Gorge and its lateral glens. The wildling is a 
true perennial with flowers of a uniform mauve-pink colour. 
Another greenhouse Primrose (P. obconica) occurs in the same 
region but in moist loamy situations. 

The Indian and Mollis Azaleas and a score of other favourite 
plants of our gardens all came originally from Chinese gardens 
through various agencies. It is true we have developed most 
of these introductions almost beyond recognition, and the 
Chinese are now acquiring new forms and varieties from us, 
yet without these early arrivals how much poorer our gardens 
and conservatories would be to-day ! In bygone times, even 
only about a century ago, that part of the world which we know 
as China was loosely spoken of as the " Indies," and this geo- 
graphical blunder is perpetuated in the specific name " indica " 
which botanists have attached to some of these plants. In 
the middle of last century many ornamental plants were 
received from the gardens of Japan, and botanists, assuming 
that these were natives of the country, gave the specific name 
"japonica" to certain of them. Subsequent knowledge has, 
however, conclusively proved that a number of the so-called 
Japanese plants are only cultivated forms of plants originally 
natives of China. Thus has the geographer and botanist 
unwittingly obscured China's right to be termed the " King- 
dom of Flowers." 



The Principal Food-Stuff Crops 

THE Chinese might appropriately be termed a " Nation 
of Shopkeepers," yet, in spite of their commercial 
enterprise, the agricultural industry is the backbone of 
the nation. With a vast population to support, every possible 
inch of land has been brought under cultivation, and prodigious 
efforts have been made to obtain the greatest returns from the 
soil. In spite of it all, millions are ever on the verge of starva- 
tion, and almost annually either drought or flood brings famine 
to some part of the Empire. 

Landed property is held in clans or families as much as 
possible and is not entailed, nor are overgrown estates frequent. 
The land is all held directly from the Crown, no freehold being 
acknowledged. The conditions of common tenure are the 
payment of an annual tax, the fee for alienation, with a money 
composition for personal service to the Government. The 
proprietors of land record their names in the district and take 
out an original deed (called " red deed ") which secures them 
in possession as long as the ground tax is paid. This sum 
varies very much according to the fertility, location, and nature 
of the land, but is nowhere heavy or severe. Naturally, good 
rice-land pays the heaviest tax. The paternal estate, and the 
property thereon, descends to the eldest son, but his brothers 
can remain upon it with their families and devise their portion' 
in perpetuo to their children, or an amicable composition may 
be made ; daughters never inherit, nor can an adopted son of 
another clan succeed. A mortgagee must enter into possession 
of property and make himself responsible for the payment 
of taxes levied thereon. The enclosure of recent alluvial 


deposits cannot be made without the cognizance of the 
authorities, but the terms in such cases are not onerous. When 
waste hillsides and poor areas are brought under cultivation 
ample time is allowed for a return of the capital expended in 
reclaiming them before assessment is made. 

Since the food-supply of the Chinese population has always 
been supplied from within the Empire, agriculture has rightly 
been accorded first place among all branches of labour from 
time immemorial. According to legend, the Emperor Shen- 
nung (2737-2697 B.C.) established agriculture as a science. He 
examined the various kinds of soils and gave directions as to 
what should be cultivated in each. He taught the people how 
to make ploughs, and instructed them in the best methods of 
husbandry. Immediate results were seen in the improved 
conditions of the people, and succeeding generations have 
amply testified their gratitude to him. Under the title of 
" Prince of Cereals " he has long since been deified, and is 
worshipped throughout the length and breadth of the land. 
In Peking there is an altar dedicated to him, enclosed within 
a large park. Formerly, at the vernal equinox, the ruling 
emperor, assisted by various officials, performed an annual 
commemorative ceremony of ploughing a portion of the park. 

The Chinese nation is to a very large extent vegetarian, 
flesh being eaten only in small quantities except on festival 
occasions. Pork, chickens, ducks, and fish comprise the meat- 
diet, and of these the Chinese are excessively fond, but to the 
great majority they are luxuries, only to be indulged in on rare 
occasions. Rice is to them what wheat is to us, only more so. 
So long as the average Chinaman can get rice he is happy ; 
but this would be scarcely true of ourselves if we could only 
get bread ! Next to rice the more important food-stuffs are 
wheat, maize, pulse, and cabbage. The Chinese fry most of 
their vegetables, and for this purpose a vegetable oil is nearly 
always used. The oils expressed from the seeds of members 
of the Cabbage [Brassica) family, the Soy Bean {Glycine hispida) , 
and Sesame [Sesamum indicum) being most in request. 

Whilst the Chinese cultivate a great variety of vegetables 
the quality of one and all, judged from our standard, is 
wretchedly inferior. With the exception of maize and sweet 

VOL. II. — 4 


potatoes, it is safe to say that not a single Chinese vegetable 
would command attention in this country. In this chapter 
I have attempted a fairly exhaustive account of this subject, in 
so far as it came under my observation during the eleven years 
I travelled in China. These observations were mainly limited 
to three provinces, namely, Yunnan, Hupeh, and Szechuan. 
The estimated area of these territories is about 372,500 
square miles — more than three times that of the United 
Kingdom. Other parts of China have vegetables peculiarly 
their own. Again, at the treaty ports, where foreigners have 
settled, varieties of our own vegetables have been introduced 
and are cultivated for their use. These, with rare exceptions, 
do not come within our province. 

In China the fields are all so small that market-gardening 
rather than farming best describes the agricultural industry. 
Long experience has taught the people how to obtain the 
maximum returns without unduly exhausting the soil, indeed, 
the extraordinary thing about Chinese agriculture is the fact 
that, although cultivation has been so long in progress, the soil 
shows practically no sign of exhaustion. Artificial manures are 
unknown to the Chinese farmer, and ordinary farmyard manure 
is scarce and almost a negligible factor. Constant tillage, aided 
by as much sewage as can be possibly obtained, are relied upon 
to produce full crops. The sewage from cities and villages is 
carried long distances away in buckets or in tubs to the fields, 
and nowhere else in the world is human excrement so highly 
valued or so laboriously collected. In matters of seed-selection, 
plant-breeding, and the higher arts of agriculture, the Chinese 
have everything to learn. Rotation of crops and the enrich- 
ment of the soil by leguminous crops they understand and 
practise as fully as circumstances permit. 

Rice {Oryza sativa) is, of course, the favourite cereal, but being 
a tropical plant, requiring an aquatic habitat, its area of cul- 
tivation is restricted in China, and probably a third of the 
people never taste this grain save on festival occasions. In 
southern China two crops of rice are obtainable annually, but 
throughout the greater part of the land where this cereal is 
cultivated only one crop can be grown in a season. This 
occupies the ground from May until early in September. 


In the cultivation of rice, the patience, ingenuity, and 
incredible industry of the Chinese are particularly well exempli- 
fied. The terraced fields, necessary to ensure a flow of water, 
whether it be on a seemingly flat plain or on a steep hillside, 
meet the eye of the traveller on all sides. It is little short of 
marvellous when one reflects on the skilful way in which the 
entire rice-belt in China is terraced, and the enormous amount 
of time and labour involved in the undertaking indicate what 
a hard task-master necessity has been. In matters of irrigation 
the Chinese are past masters. They have not yet succeeded 
in making water run uphill, but with their various contrivances 
they lift it bodily from streams and ditches and convey it long 
distances to wherever it is needed. The number of devices for 
irrigation purposes is almost legion, and though simple in prin- 
ciple and efficacious in results they are intricate in detail. 
Some are operated by hand, others by the foot, and many are 
automatically worked by the current of the streams. The 
large skeleton-like water-wheels depicted in the photographic 
illustration (p. 52), represent one of the methods commonly 
in use in central and Western China. 

Rice-cultivation presents many tedious details and the 
layman will probably find it difficult to realize that in China 
the whole crop is planted by hand. The grain is sown thickly 
in nursery-beds, and when the seedlings are 5 or 6 inches tall 
they are transplanted in small clumps equidistant in the 
flooded, prepared fields. Men and women take part in this work, 
and it is surprising how rapidly the fields are planted. The 
rice plants are made firm in the mud by treading around them 
immediately they are established. The fields are kept free of 
weeds and the requisite supply of water is maintained until, 
as the crop ripens, the fields are finally allowed to get dry. 
The rice crop is reaped by hand, and without being removed 
from the field the grain is at once beaten off into wooden bins ; 
afterwards it is dried and stored. The Chinese cultivate three 
well-marked varieties of rice — namely, ordinary, red, and glu- 
tinose. The first two are grown for food only ; the red, being the 
hardiest, is cultivated at higher altitudes than the other, but 
is by no means confined thereto. This Red Rice, " Hung-me " 
(0. sativa, var. prcBcox), gets its name from the reddish colour 


of the pellicle, which adheres tenaciously to parts of the grain 
after milling. Glutinose Rice (0. sativa, var. glutinosa) does 
not take the place of the other two as a food-stuff, being only 
eaten for a change. It is valued for the weak spirit which is 
made from it, for the sugar which is extracted from it, and for 
making into cakes and sweetmeats. It is later in ripening 
than the other varieties, and always commands a higher 
price in the market. In Yunnan a variety which will thrive 
without water is grown. This Upland Rice [0. sativa, var. 
montana) yields but a poor crop and is very inferior. 

Whilst the Chinese are pre-eminently a rice-eating race, it 
should be borne in mind that there are millions of Chinese who, 
save on rare occasions, never eat rice at all. To these people, 
wheat, maize, and buckwheat are the staple cereals. In the 
rice-growing districts of China, Wheat {Triticum sativum) is 
a winter crop, occupying the ground from October to early 
May. In the mountainous districts and in the colder provinces 
it is a most important summer crop. I have noted no fewer 
than five very distinct varieties, comprising both " red " and 
" white " wheats, and both awned and awnless kinds. In late 
August the mountain-sides and valleys in western Szechuan 
present a glorious picture of miles and miles of rolling grain 
fields. In this region 8ooo to 10,500 feet represent the wheat- 
growing belt. The grain is sown by hand in rows, the seeds 
being dropped in clusters a few inches apart. In the Yangtsze 
Valley, if the wheat crop is late in ripening, it is ploughed in 
to make way for rice. In the plains of central China the grain 
is threshed out the moment it is harvested. On the Thibetan 
borderland it is tied into sheaves and stacked, ears downwards, 
on tall hurdle-like arrangements (Kai-kos) until time and weather 
admit of its being threshed. (These remarks also apply to 
barley, oats, and other crops.) The grain is ground into flour 
and made into cakes and vermicelli. Chinese flour is usually 
gritty and of bad colour. 

Barley is sparsely cultivated throughout the Yangtsze 
VaUey, and it is only in the mountainous Thibetan borderland 
that it is largely grown. The Chinese do not care for the meal, 
and the grain is chiefly used for making spirit and for feeding 
pigs and other domestic animals. The Thibetans, on the other 


hand, highly esteem barley. Roasted and ground into meal 
and mixed with tea and rancid butter it forms " Tsamba," their 
national and staple food. Since it is hardier than wheat its 
culture extends to a greater altitude; the highest point at which 
I noted it was 12,000 feet. Both Chinese and Thibetans cul- 
tivate several varieties, but the six-rowed variety, Hordeum 
hexasiichon, is most in favour. Around Sungpan a variety of 
the above, having purple paleae, is largely grown, being con- 
sidered hardier than the type. This variety is apparently 
peculiar to this region, being quite distinct from the two-ranked 
chocolate Barley {H. coeleste), which is cultivated in parts of the 
Himalaya. Ordinary Barley {H. vulgare) is cultivated in smaller 
quantities than the preceding kinds by Chinese and Thibetans. 
In Hupeh and in the river-valleys of western Szechuan I met 
with occasional patches of H. hexasiichon, var. trifurcatum. 
This variety is the Mi-me (Rice-wheat) of the Chinese. 

In the mountains Rye [Secale fragile) is sparingly grown 
and the grain eaten. 

Oats are not much grown by the Chinese in the parts through 
which I travelled, but they are cultivated to a considerable 
extent by the Thibetan and other tribesmen in the highlands. 
The Chinese prefer Avena nuda, which they designate " Yen- 
me " ; the Thibetans and tribesf oik favour ^yg««/(3;;{wa. The 
grain of both these kinds is roasted and ground into oatmeal, 
or cooked and eaten whole. 

Next to rice and wheat. Maize, or " Pao-k'o " {Zea Mays), 
is the most important cereal. This plant is of American origin, 
but it has been so long cultivated in China that the date of 
introduction is not ascertainable. In the rice-belt it is rele- 
gated to land that for one reason or another is not suitable 
for rice. It is in the more mountainous parts that maize is the 
staple crop. It occupies the gullies and slopes of the mountains, 
and commonly so steep are these that one wonders how the 
people manage to sow and reap the crop. Wild pigs rob the 
maize fields, and when the crop is in ear the farmers beat gongs 
and make as much noise as possible during the night to scare 
these animals away. In open country tall thatched look outs 
are erected, where the juvenile and female members of the 
family sit and watch for thieves during the daylight. 


In the Yangtsze Valley maize is always a summer crop, and 
two crops are frequently harvested. In the mountains its 
cultivation extends up to 8000 feet, and in exceptionally favour- 
able districts even higher. Green corn is really a delicious 
vegetable, and ought to be used in this country. The Chinese, 
however, do not employ it extensively in this form. When 
ripe the sheaths of the cobs are folded back, exposing the grain. 
They are then tied in bunches and suspended from the roofs of 
houses, where they can be kept dry. The grain is ground 
and made into meal-cakes ; it is also used for making spirit. 
From the culms sugar is sometimes extracted, but their chief 
use is for fuel. 

False Millet [Sorghum vulgar e), the " Kao-liang " or " Hsu- 
tzu " of the Chinese, is largely used for making wine. It is 
cultivated generally throughout central and Western China, but 
not so extensively as in the northern parts of China, and notably 
Manchuria. The largest areas I noted were on the plateaux 
of Yunnan, the plain of Chengtu, and the fluviatile areas of the 
Min and Fou Rivers. Its altitudinal limit is about the same as 
that of maize, and, like this latter, it is always a summer crop. 
Two distinct varieties are grown, one with purple, the other with 
yellowish " heads." It is occasionally employed as food, more 
particularly in mountainous districts, but 90 per cent, of it 
is used for making wine. 

Other Millets met with in cultivation are Panicummiliaceum, 
" Chan-tzu " ; Setaria italica, " Hsiu-ku " ; and Panicum crus- 
galli, var. frumentaceum, " Lung-tsao-ku," but not in large 
quantities. The grain is used in making cakes and for feeding 
bird-pets. The cereal commonly known as Job's Tears, " Ta- 
wan-tzu ' ' [Coix lachryma) , is cultivated in small patches through- 
out central and Western China. Though occasionally used as 
food in the form of gruel, " Job's tears " are chiefly valued as 
medicine. They are supposed to possess tonic and diuretic 
properties, and are administered in cases of phthisis and dropsy. 
Of Buckwheat two species are commonly cultivated, namely, 
Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum, the " T'ien-ch'iao-me " 
and " K'u-ch'iao-me " respectively of the Chinese. These 
constitute a most important crop, especially in the highlands. 
Under favourable climatic conditions two crops are harvested. 


A field of the pink Buckwheat (F. esculentum) in flower is one 
of the prettiest sights imaginable. It is most commonly grown 
on terraced mountain-sides. The other species grows twice as 
tall as the above, and bears greenish-white flowers. The 
altitudinal limit of buckwheat equals and possibly exceeds 
that of barley. After the seeds are threshed out they are 
ground up in water, and the husks are removed by a fine sieve. 
The flour is then made into dough with a little salt, to which 
lime is added. This dough is made into vermicelli, when it is 
ready for cooking and eating. Buckwheat constitutes a most 
important article of food among the Chinese who live in the 
mountainous districts, and also with the tribesfolk of the 
borderland. It is a very accommodating crop, for it thrives on 
the poorest of soils, requires little attention beyond sowing and 
harvesting, and matures very quickly. 

Since the Chinese are to such a large extent a vegetarian 
people, the various members of the pea and bean family are 
necessarily most important crops. The Common Pea, " Me- 
wan-tzu " [Pisum sativum), and Broad Bean [Vicia Faba), with 
the Soy Bean {Glycine hispida), are the most important. The 
two former are winter crops in the valleys and summer crops in 
the highlands. The soy bean is everywhere a summer crop. 
Peas and broad beans are eaten both fresh and dried. They 
are also ground into flour and made into vermicelli. The young 
shoots of the pea are eaten as a vegetable. The soy bean, 
" Huang-tou," is of even greater value than the preceding ; it 
is planted everywhere — in fields by itself, around rice and other 
fields, and as an undercrop to maize and sorghum. It yields 
seeds of three colours, namely, yellow, green, and black. The 
Chinese distinguish three kinds of the yellow and two kinds 
each of the green and black. These varieties yield a succession 
of beans, the black being fully a month later than the others. 
The " Huang-tou " is cooked and eaten as a vegetable, or ground 
into flour and made into vermicelli ; preserved in salt it makes 
an excellent pickle. It is also extensively used in the manu- 
facture of soy sauce and soy vinegar. A variety with small 
yellow seeds is largely employed in making bean-curd. While 
in central and Western China the soy bean is cultivated ex- 
clusively as a food-stuff, in Manchuria it is grown almost solely 


for the oil which is obtained from the seeds by pressure, and for 
the residual-cakes that remain after the oil had been expressed. 
From Newchwang, the port of Manchuria, there is an enormous 
export trade done in " Bean-cake," which is in great demand as 
an agricultural fertilizer in all parts of China. The soy bean 
has recently been exported to Europe in large quantities, 
and the soy-bean oil is employed in soap-making and for culin- 
ary purposes. 

Two kinds of Gram, Phaseolus mungo, " Lu-tou," and 
P. mungo, var. radiatus, " Hung-tou," are grown as summer 
crops. The seeds of the " Lu-tou " (green bean) are especially 
valued for their sprouts. To obtain these the beans are put in 
jars with water and covered over. Under these conditions they 
quickly develop shoots a couple of inches or more long, which 
are highly esteemed as a vegetable. Of the " Hung-tou " 
(red bean) there are two or three varieties. The seeds of these 
are used as a vegetable or ground into flour and employed for 
stuffing cakes and sweetmeats. 

The Lentil {Ervum Lens), " Chin-me-wan-tzu," is cultivated 
as a winter crop, being commonly associated with peas and 
broad beans. It is, however, by no means extensively 
grown. The seeds are eaten cooked. Oil is occasionally 
expressed from the seeds and used for lighting purposes. 
Other pulses are Dolichos Lahlah, " Pien-tou," of which there 
are several varieties, Canavalia ensiformis (Sword Bean), 
Phaseolus vulgaris, " Yiin-tou," Vigna Catiang, and Cajanus 
indicus, all commonly and extensively cultivated. Though the 
seeds of the first four are eaten, it is more for the pods, which are 
sliced, cooked, and eaten as a vegetable, that these plants are 
valued. The cylindrical pods of Vigna Catiang are from i-|- to 
2 feet long, and about the thickness of a lead-pencil. Though 
the Chinese esteem it, I have found it only a very tasteless 
vegetable. As a winter crop in parts of the Yangtsze Valley, 
Melilotus macrorhiza, " Yeh-hua-tsen," is sparingly cultivated. 
The green shoots are sometimes eaten as a vegetable ; the 
seeds are used medicinally for colds. 

Of cabbages the Chinese have their own peculiar varieties, 
all of them very different from those grown in this country. 
The favourite variety, " Peh-ts'ai," or Shantung cabbage, as 




foreigners have styled it, is more like a huge cos lettuce than 
a cabbage. This kind is grown everywhere, but attains its 
greatest perfection in the colder parts of China. In the 
Yangtsze Valley it is best when grown as a winter crop. Another 
striking variety is the white-ribbed cabbage, " Kin-ta-ts'ai," 
which is said to be peculiar to Szechuan. In addition to 
these some half-dozen other varieties are cultivated. Cabbages 
are eaten fresh or are preserved by salting and drying in the 
sun. From a European standpoint none is worth growing, 
being so very inferior in flavour to our own. The Roman 
Catholic priests have introduced the common European 
cabbage, but though its culture has spread widely the Chinese 
much prefer their own varieties. While the Chinese cabbages 
are all really referable to Brassica campestris, it is convenient 
to group them under B. chinensis. As a winter crop green 
kale, " Kan-kan-ts'ai," and dark-red kale, " Ts'ai-tai " are 
cultivated through the Yangtsze Valley. The young shoots of 
Brassica juncea and B. campestris, var. oUifera, are also used 
in the same way as kale. 

The Chinese cultivate a great many gourds for food, the 
whole cucurbitaceous family being known under the general 
name of " Kua." Some are eaten raw, and others cooked. 
The male flowers, too, are eaten by the peasantry. The seeds 
ol the water-melon are esteemed a great delicacy. They are 
sHghtly roasted, and are consumed in enormous quantities ; 
no banquet is complete without them, and over their gossip 
in tea-shops or restaurants, scholars and coolies alike regale 
themselves with these delicious morsels. Preserved in sugar, 
melon-seeds form a favourite sweetmeat. As a summer crop 
throughout the Yangtsze Valley the following cucurbitaceous 
plants are commonly cultivated : Cucurbita Citrullus, " Hsi- 
kua" ; C. Pepo, " Hsi-hu-lu" ; C. moschata, " Huo-kua " ; C. 
maxima, " Nan-kua" ; C. ovifera, " Sun-kua" ; Cucumis Melo, 
"Tien-kua"; C. sativus, " Huang-kua " ; Benincasa cerifera, 
" Tung-kua " ; Lagenaria vulgaris, var. clavata, " Hu-tzu-kua " ; 
L. leucantha, var. longis, " Ts'ai-kua." Wlien very young the 
fruit of Momordica charantia, " Ku-kua," is eaten, and when 
old is used as medicine. Luffa cylindrica, " Ssu-kua," is cooked 
and eaten when young ; when old the fibre is esteemed as 


medicine. Lagenaria vulgaris, " Hu-lii," is cultivated for its 
hard shells, which are converted into receptacles for holding 
water, oil, or wine. In addition to the above, several gourds 
are cultivated for their ornamental fruits, which are used for 
decorative purposes. 

In the valleys and on the plains and low hills bordering 
them throughout the Yangtsze Valley and Yunnan, the Sweet 
Potato {Ipomcea Batatas) is the most important root crop. 
The crop is always cultivated on ridges and is grown from 
both old tubers and cuttings. Tubers are planted out in 
May, and cuttings from the shoots of these are inserted in 
July and early August, and produce a fine crop in October and 
November. The crop from the old roots is ready in August. 
Sweet potatoes are eaten after being boiled, baked, and dried 
in chips, and constitute a truly delicious dish. As they 
deteriorate by keeping, they are cut into slices, scalded, and 
then dried in the sun. The tubers are also macerated in cold 
water, and the resultant starch dried and made into vermicelli. 
In Hupeh the sweet potato is known as the " Hung-shao," 
in Szechuan as the " Pen-shao." 

In the mountainous districts the sweet potato is displaced 
by the Irish potato, or " Yang-yii " [Solanum tuberosum), 
which, like maize, is another plant of American origin that 
has become a most important crop. It was introduced by 
the Roman Catholic priests at the time of a great famine 
some forty odd years ago. Its culture has spread enormously, 
and though it is despised by the rice-eating Chinese of the 
plains it has become a staple article of food with the highland 
peasantry. In the valleys it is cultivated as a late winter 
crop, in the mountains as a summer crop. Its culture is 
unfortunately but little understood ; it is always grown too 
thickly, and seldom if ever properly earthed up. Both red 
and white-skinned varieties are grown, but the flavour is 
usually very poor. The potatoes cultivated by the Buddhist 
priests on Mount Omei are justly celebrated, but the best I 
ever ate in China were grown by Sifan tribesfolk around 

Two kinds of Yam are commonly cultivated, namely, 
Dioscorea alata, the " Chieh-pan-shao," which has enormously 


large, flat, branching tubers, and D. Batatas, " Pai-shao " ; 
both are cooked and eaten. Around Ichang the tubers 
of a third species are eaten. This species is known as D. 
zingiherensis , the " Huang-chiang," or Yellow Ginger. The 
tuber is bitter, and is valued chiefly as a medicine. Chinese 
yams do not equal the sweet potato in flavour, and are not so 
extensively grown. Around Chengtu Pachyrhizus angulatus, 
the " Ti-kua," is commonly grown. The white, firm-fleshed, 
turnip-like tubers are eaten either raw or cooked. 

White turnips, " Lo-po," both the long and round kinds, 
are cultivated everywhere, but the flavour is very poor. Also 
the so-called red turnip, which really is a Radish [Raphanus 
sativus). All three are cooked and eaten when fresh, or pre- 
served by being sliced and dried in the sun. Brassica Napus, 
var. esculenta, the " Ta-t'ou-ts'ai," is very generally cultivated, 
but I met with it most frequently on the Chengtu Plain. The 
whole plant is pickled and eaten with rice. The Szechuanese 
also cultivate most excellent Kohl-rabi {Brassica oleracea, var. 
caulo-rapa) . 

Two aroids, Colocasia antiquorum and its variety Fontanesii, 
" Kiang-tou," are very extensively cultivated for their tubers, 
which are cooked and eaten in various ways. Both are grown 
on ridges in flooded ground. The purple-coloured petioles 
of the "Kiang-tou" are sliced, pickled, and eaten. The 
flavour of the tubers of these plants is similar to that of 
the Jerusalem artichoke, but inferior. Sagittaria sagittifolia, 
" T'zu-ku," is cultivated in Szechuan and Yunnan, and the 
tubers are cooked and eaten in the same way as those of the 
Colocasia. The tubers of Scirpus tuberosus, " P'ei-chi," and the 
fruits of the Water Chestnut [Trapa natans), " Ling-chio," 
two very common aquatics, are esteemed valuable articles of 

The Lotus-lily [Nelumhium speciosum), " Lien hwa," is 
cultivated both for its seed and its rhizome. These are used 
as food, but being expensive are luxuries enjoyed only by the 
wealthy. The fibres of the rhizome are used medicinally. 
Ginger {Zingiber officinale), " Seng-chiang," is very extensively 
grown. It is prepared for the table in various ways. From 
Canton, ginger preserved in sugar is exported in quantity to 


this country. Amorphophallus konjac, " Mo-yii," is sparingly 
cultivated throughout the Yangtsze Valley. The tubers are 
ground up with water and made into a curd-like compound. 
On Mount Omei and in north-west Szechuan this plant is 
more generally cultivated. The bulbs of Lilium tigrinum, the 
" Chia-peh-ho," are highly esteemed, and occur both cultivated 
and wild. The white bulbs of this lily are more expensive in 
China than they are in this country. When properly cooked 
these bulbs are not at all bad eating. They somewhat resemble 
the parsnip in flavour. 

Of the onion family, Garlic, or " Ta-suan " [Allium sativum), 
and the common Onion; or " Ts'ong " [A. Cepa)] are cultivated 
extensively. Garlic is highly esteemed. Onions are eaten 
as " spring onions," large bulbs being absolutely unknown. 
A. fistulosum is the Chinese Leek, " Chiu-ts'ai," and is very 
widely grown. The leaves are flattened and covered with 
earth to ensure blanching. The blanched leaves, " Chin- 
huang," are considered a delicacy. In the mountains A. 
odorum, A. chinense, and other species are common. These are 
culled and eaten by the peasantry. Szechuan, especially the 
more alluvial areas, produces remarkably fine Carrots {Daucus 
Carota), " Hung Lo-po." They are grown in large quantities 
and eaten with great relish. The Parsnip [Peucedanum 
sativum), " Uen-shui " are cultivated, but the roots are seldom 
thicker than a pencil. The whole plant is cooked and eaten. 

Although in central and Western China quite a number 
of plants are grown for their oil, fully 75 per cent, of the oil 
commonly used is the product of two members of the cabbage 
family. After a careful investigation of the subject I have 
satisfied myself that the two plants in question are Brassica 
juncea, var. oleifera, and B. campestris, var. oleifera. The 
latter is the " Ta-yu-ts'ai " of the Chinese, the former the 
" Hsao-yu-ts'ai;" or " Ch'ing-yu." Both kinds are loosely 
designated " rape " by the foreigners resident in China ; 
but in my wanderings there I never met with the true rape 
plant. Throughout the entire Yangtsze Valley, during the 
winter months, enormous areas are given over to the cultiva- 
tion of these two plants. Though the " Hsao-yu-ts'ai " is 
the earlier of the two, the other is the more extensively grown. 

h > ft* 

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■■*■'* "O ^r-' 


These plants are in flower in February and March, and the crop 
is harvested in April. The seeds are crushed and steamed, 
and the oil obtained by expression. In Szechuan the use of 
the oil as an illuminant equals its culinary value. It also 
enters very largely into the composition of Chinese candles. 

Oil is also expressed from the seeds of the Ground-nut 
{Arachis hypogcea), the Opium Poppy [Papaver somniferum), 
the Sunflower [Helianthus annuus), Cotton seed [Gossypium 
herbaceum), the Soy Bean {Glycine hispida), and members of 
the cabbage family, other than those already mentioned, 
notably the kales, and in the highlands from Flax seed, 
" Shan-chih-ma " {Linum usitatissimum) . These oils are all 
used for cooking and lighting purposes and for adulterating 
the more valuable " Ts'ai-yu." With the exception, however, 
of the ground-nut, they are not extensively employed. In 
Hupeh and Szechuan, Sesamum indicum is cultivated sparingly 
as a summer crop. In Yunnan its cultivation is more general. 
The oil from its seeds is very highly esteemed, and commands 
a high price in the market. It is known as the " Hsiang-yu," 
or fragrant oil, and is eaten raw, mixed with cooked vegetables. 
From the seeds of Perilla ocymoides an oil, known as " Su-ma," 
and similar to sesamum oil, is expressed ; it is used in salads. 
This plant is, however, but very sparingly cultivated. 

A large number of miscellaneous vegetables are used as food 
in various ways. Some are wild, but most are cultivated, and 
many of them are strange and novel to Europeans. A hand- 
some if tasteless fruit, the Brinjal, " Chuei-tzu " [Solanum 
Melongena), is largely cultivated as a vegetable. The Chinese 
distinguish at least 5 varieties that differ from each other in 
colour, shape, and time of maturing. Some of them are truly 
enormous, often weighing 2^ lbs., and measuring i foot in 
length. They are in the market from June till October, 
The Tomato (S. Lycopersicum) has been introduced by 
foreigners, and in Yunnan is frequently met with semi-wild 
as an escape from cultivation. The Chinese, as far as my 
observations go, do not eat it themselves. 

A small-fruited variety of the Chilli-pepper, " Ai-chiao " 
{Capsicum frutescens), is commonly cultivated, and is particu- 
larly happy in the dry, hot valleys of the Tung and Min 


Rivers, where it is grown as an article of export for other parts 
of China. Both long and round (heart-shaped) forms of Capsi- 
cum (C. annuum) are cultivated in the plains, and especially 
the plain of Chengtu. These chillies and capsicums con- 
stitute the most important relish used by the Chinese. In a 
green state the latter are fried and eaten with rice and cabbage. 
When ripe they are pounded up in a mortar, and with water 
added foim a sauce. Roasted and ground into meal they are 
used for seasoning purposes. The ripe chillies and capsicums 
are also boiled in oil, and impart to it their pungent flavour. 
Oil so treated will keep for an indefinite period. The true 
Chinese pepper, known as " Hua-chiao," is the ground-up fruit 
of Zanthoxylum Bungei. This is a thorny shi^ub cultivated 
every^^'here in small quantities, but it is only in the Min Valley 
that I have noted it extensively grown for export. 

As previously mentioned, bamboo shoots are eaten both 
fresh, dried, and salted. When cooked as a vegetable or made 
into a salad, these shoots are very fair eating, but it is ridiculous 
to compare them with asparagus, as some writers have done. 
In the warmer parts of China it is the young shoots of Bambusa 
arundinacea and B. vulgaris that are employed. They are 
also an article of export to other parts of China, and can 
usually be bought in a dried state in most of the large cities. 
In mountainous districts the young succulent shoots of other 
species of Bamboo are eaten. In the west, one of the commonest 
of these is the lovely Arundinaria nitida. 

Celery {Apium graveolens) , " Ch'ing-ts'ai," and Lettuce 
{Lactuca Scariola), " U'sen," are commonly cultivated. The 
celery is never bleached, and it is the stem of the lettuce rather 
than the leaves that is in request. The leaves and young shoots 
of the following plants are used as vegetables : Cedrela 
sinensis, " Ch'un-tuen shu " ; Pistacia chinensis, " Huang- 
nien-ya " ; Chrysanthemum segetum, " Tung-hao " ; Malva 
parviflora, " Mao-tung-han-ts'ai " ; M. verticillaia, " Tung-han- 
ts'ai " ; Chenopodium album, " Hui-t'ien-han " ; Acroglochin 
chenopodioides, " Yeh-han-ts'ai " ; ipomcea aquatica, " Weng- 
ts'ai " ; Anaphalis contorta, " Tak'ing-ming-ts'ai " ; Corian- 
drum sativum, " Yen-ts'ai " ; Taraxacum officinale, " Ku-ts'ai"; 
Beta vulgaris, " T'ien-ts'ai " ; Lactuca denticulata, " Wo-sheng- 


ts'ai " ; Spinacia olcracea, " Po-ts'ai " ; Crepis japonica, 
" Huang-hua-ts'ai " ; Basella rubra, " Juan-chiang-tzu " ; 
Cclosia argentea, " Chi-kung-hua " ; and Amaranthus panicu- 
latus, " Ya-ku." 

The " Kao-sen" {Zizania latifolia) isverygenerallycultivated. 
Its succulent stem and very young inflorescence are cooked and 
eaten as a vegetable. From a European standpoint it is really 
very good eating. From the rhizome of the Bracken Fern 
{Pteridium aquilinum) an arrowroot-like substance called 
" Chiieh-fen " is prepared. In the mountains the young fronds 
of this fern are eaten by the peasantry. From the thick woody 
root of Pueraria Thunhergiana an " arrowroot " similar to the 
above is prepared. It is, however, in very little request, save in 
times of scarcity. The starchy roots of Potentilla discolor and 
P. multifida are also occasionally used for preparing a food-stuff. 

The flowers of Lilium Sargentice, " Yeh-peh-ho," and of 
Hemerocallis flava, " Huang-hua-ts'ai," are eaten, as also are 
the yellow pea-like flowers of Caragana chamlagu. The 
mucilaginous seeds of Plantago major, " Ch'e-ch'ien-ts'ao," 
enter into the composition of a jelly, " Liang-fen," which is 
used in summer. The Chinese are very fond of several species of 
Fungi, and distinguish quite a number of edible kinds. Amongst 
their favourites are Hirneola polytricha, Cantharellus cibarius, 
Tricholoma gambosa, Lactarius deliciosus, and Agaricus campes- 
tris, the Common Mushroom. Seaweed is imported in quantity 
from Japan, and is on sale in the shops of all the larger towns 
and villages. From this Seaweed {Porphyra vulgaris) the 
Chinese prepare a very nutritious jelly. 

The difficulty of tracing the original types of plants that 
have long been in cultivation and of affixing the correct scientific 
names to them is a very real one, and one that can be ap- 
preciated by all who have studied the history of our common 
garden plants. While in the foregoing pages I cannot hope 
to have altogether escaped error in this matter, I have used 
every means at my command to ensure accuracy. 


Wild and Cultivated Trees of Economic Importance 

CHINA is remarkably rich in raw economic products of 
vegetable origin, especially in oil, fat, and saponin-yield- 
ing fruits and seeds, lacquer-Vcirnish, tannin, and dye- 
products, fibres and paper-making material. Some of these 
products are in increasing demand for export trade with the 
outside world, and will undoubtedly develop into great industries 
of the future. In this and the succeeding chapter is given an 
account of the more important of the products derived from 
central and Western China. This region is the source whence 
the majority of the raw articles are obtained that are exported 
from Hankow, the great trade entrepot of the Yangtsze 

One of the most important of all Chinese products is 
wood oil. This is obtained from the seeds of two species of 
Aleurites, a small genus of low-growing trees belonging to the 
Spurge family. The two species for the most part occupy 
distinct geographical areas, but both have been recorded as 
growing close together in the province of Fokien. In the 
south of China wood oil is the product of A. montana, 
which bears its flowers on the current season's shoots at the 
time when the leaves are expanded, and has an egg-shaped 
fruit, sharply pointed, and unevenly ridged on the outside. 
This is the " Mu-yu shu " — literally " Wood Oil tree " of the 
Chinese. In central and Western China it is A. Fordii, known 
as the " T'ung-yu shu " — literally " T'ung Oil tree," which 
produces this valuable oil. This latter species bears its 
flowers at the ends of the previous year's shoots before the 

leaves unfold, and has a fiattened-round, apple-hke fruit, only 



slightly pointed, and perfectly smooth on the outside. These 
two trees have been very much confused by botanists, and 
it is well to emphasize their distinctive characters. The 
" T'ung-yu " is the more hardy tree of the two, and is much 
more widely distributed, furnishing fully nine-tenths of the 
so-called " wood oil " used in China and exported from thence. 
Within the last decade " wood oil " has attracted considerable 
attention in Europe and in the United States of America as a 
possible substitute for linseed oil, and it is annually imported 
into these countries in vastly increasing quantities. Chemists 
have investigated the products of these two trees, and find no 
appreciable difference in the oils. 

The " Mu-yu " {A. montana) is common in the regions 
around Wuchou to the west of Canton, where it is chiefly 
used, and from whence it is exported to Hongkong and else- 
where. The trade is not large ; in igio it was estimated at 
53,106 piculs.i 

The " T'ung-yu " {A. Fordii) is abundant throughout the 
Yangtsze Valley from Ichang westwards to Chungking ; more 
especially it luxuriates in the region of the gorges and the 
contiguous hilly country up to 2500 feet altitude. It is 
essentially a hillside plant, thriving in the most rocky situations, 
and on the poorest of soils, where there is a minimum rainfall 
of 29 inches ; it will also withstand drought and a few degrees 
of frost. It is a quick-growing tree, seldom exceeding 25 feet 
in height and averaging less, with a much-branched, fiat-topped 
head, 15 to 30 feet or more through, and is highly ornamental in 
flower and foliage. The flowers, produced in great profusion 
during April, are white, stained with pink and yellow markings, 
especially near the base. These are always followed by green, 
apple-like fruits, which ripen in September and are hidden 
amongst the large, glossy-green, heart-shaped leaves. Each 
fruit contains three to five seeds, which somewhat resemble 
shelled Brazil-nuts, but are much smaller. 

The fruits break naturally in three parts when dead ripe, 
but they are invariably gathered before this period, and collected 
into heaps which are covered with straw or grass. Fermenta- 
tion sets in and quickly disposes of the thin fleshy part of the 

1 One picul equals 133^ lbs. 
VOL. II. — 5 


fruit, after which the seeds are easily removed. The process 
of extracting the oil is very simple. The seeds are first crushed 
in a circular trough beneath a heavy stone wheel revolved by 
horse or ox-power. The comminuted mass is then partially 
roasted in shallow pans, after which it is placed in wooden 
vats, fitted with wicker bottoms, and thoroughly steamed 
over boiling water. Next, with the aid of an iron ring and 
straw, it is made into circular cakes about i8 inches in diameter. 
These cakes are arranged edgeways in a large press and, when 
full, pressure is exerted by driving in one wedge after another, 
thereby crushing out the brown, somewhat watery and heavy- 
smelling oil, which falls into a vat below. This " T'ung oil " is 
packed in tubs and bamboo baskets, and is ready for export. 
The yield is about 40 per cent, by weight of the kernels. The 
refuse cakes are used on the fields as fertilizers. 

" T'ung-yu " is the chief paint oil throughout the Chinese 
Empire, being used for all outside woodwork ; as a " drier " 
it excels linseed oil. The Chinese do not paint their boats, 
they oil them, and the myriads of such craft which ply on the 
Yangtsze and other rivers of China are all coated and the 
upper works kept waterproof with this oil. The crude oil 
boiled for an hour becomes a S5n:upy oil or " P'ei-yu," which 
is used as a varnish for boats and furniture. Boiled for two 
hours with the addition of certain mineral substances (" T'u- 
tzu " and " T'o-shen "), a varnish called " Kuang-yu " is 
produced which, when applied to silk gauze and pongees, 
renders them waterproof. " T'ung-yu " is also used as an 
illuminant and as an ingredient in concrete ; mixed with lime 
and bamboo shavings it is used for caulking boats. Besides 
these, and dozens of other legitimate uses, " wood oil " is 
also employed as an adulterant in lacquer- varnish. Lamp- 
black produced by burning this oil or the fruit-husks is a 
most important ingredient in the manufacture of Chinese 
ink. The trade in " T'ung oil " is very large. From Hankow 
in 1900 the quantity exported was 330,238 piculs, valued at 
Tls. 2,559,344. In 1910 the trade had risen to 756,958 piculs, 
valued at Tls. 6,449,421. 

I have given rather full details of this subject on account 
of its great importance, and because its value is only beginning 



to be realized by the Western manufacturer. The U.S.A. 
Department of Agriculture has introduced Aleurites Fordii 
into its experimental stations, and expects to establish an 
industry in the production of " T'ung oil " somewhere in the 
United States of America. It is worthy of the serious attention 
of countries other than the United States of America. In 
South Africa, Australia, Algeria, Morocco, and other regions, 
for instance, this tree would probably thrive, and its experi- 
mental culture might with advantage be undertaken by the 
various Departments of Agriculture in those British Colonies 
and French Protectorates. Of all the varied economic vege- 
table products of China, the wood oils are pre-eminently 
of a kind to receive attention, with a view of establishing 
the industry in Colonial possessions. 

Another member of the Spurge family yields the valu- 
able Chinese " vegetable tallow " of commerce. This tree, 
Sapium sehiferum, occurs in all the warmer parts of China, and 
is remarkable for the beautiful autumnal tints of its foliage. 
This tree is known by several colloquial names — in southern 
China it is the " Chiu-tzu shu " ; in central parts the " Mou-tzu 
shu " ; in the west the " Ch'uan-tzu shu." It is a long-lived 
tree, growing 40 to 50 feet tall, and having a girth of 5 or 6 feet 
at maturity. In Hupeh, where the industry is well looked 
after, the larger branches are kept " headed in " to facilitate 
the gathering of the fruits. The fruits are three-celled, 
flattened-ovoid, about 15 mm. in diameter. When ripe they 
are blackish-brown and woody in appearance, and are either 
gathered from the trees by hand or knocked off by the aid of 
bamboo poles. After being collected, the fruits are spread 
in the sun, where they open, and each liberates three elliptical 
seeds, which are covered with a white substance. This covering 
is a fat or tallow, and is removed by steaming and rubbing 
through a bamboo sieve having meshes sufficiently small to 
retain the black seeds. The fat is collected and melted ; 
afterwards it is moulded into cakes, in which state it is known 
as the " Pi-yu " of commerce. After the fatty covering has 
been removed the seeds are crushed, and the powdered mass 
undergoes the same processes as are described for extracting 
wood oil. The oil expressed from the seeds is the " Ting-yu " 


of commerce. Very often no attempt is made to separate the 
fat and the oil. The seeds with their white fatty covering are 
crushed and steamed together and submitted to pressure, 
the mixed product so obtained being known as " Mou-yu." 
The yield of fat and oil is about 30 per cent, by weight of the 
seeds. In China all three products are largely employed in 
the manufacture of candles. The pure " Pi-yu " has a higher 
melting point than the " Ting-yu " or the mixture " Mou-yu." 
All Chinese candles have an exterior coating of insect white 
wax, but when made from " Pi-yu " only the thinnest possible 
covering of wax is necessary (one-tenth of an ounce to a pound) . 
All three products of the Vegetable Tallow tree are exported 
in quantity to Europe, where they are used in the manufacture 
of soap, being essential constituents of certain particular forms 
of this article. Chinese vegetable tallow is an increasingly 
important article of trade. In 1910 some 178,204 piculs, 
valued at Tls. 1,878,418, were exported from Hankow. 

Every one is familiar with some form or other of the 
lacquer-work of China and Japan, but the varnish employed for 
lacquering has not yet found a market in Western countries, 
owing to certain poisonous properties it possesses, and to the 
want of knowledge as to the correct way of applying it. 
Lacquer is prepared from a varnish obtained in its crude state 
from Rhus verniciflua, the " Che shu " of the Chinese. This 
tree grows 25 to 60 feet tall, producing handsome pinnate 
leaves, i to 2| feet long, and large panicles of small greenish 
flowers, which are followed by fruits rich in fatty oil. It is 
wild in the woods and abundantly cultivated along the margins 
of fields throughout central China, especially in the moun- 
tainous areas of western Hupeh and eastern Szechuan, but 
is much less common west of these regions. Its altitudinal 
range is from 3000 to 7500 feet, the optimum being 4000 
to 5000 feet. This tree, like the art of lacquering, was intro- 
duced from China into Japan in very early times, and is 
commonly cultivated there to-day. It is one of the many plants 
which first reached Europe from Japan, of which country 
it was erroneously considered native. 

In China, Varnish trees are the property of the ground 
landlord and not of the tenant who holds the land ; the varnish 


is also claimed by the former. When the tree has attained a 
diameter of about 6 inches, tapping for varnish commences, 
and this operation is continued at intervals until the tree is 
50 or 60 years of age. If the tapping is too severe, or the 
trees too young, injury or death ensues. The tapping opera- 
tion is begun in late June or early July at a time corresponding 
with the opening of the flowers, and is continued throughout 
the summer. Oblique incisions from 4 to 12 inches in length, 
and about i inch in width, are made in the bark of the tree down 
to the wood, and the sap which exudes is collected in shells, 
bamboo tubes, and similar receptacles. Wooden pegs are driven 
into the trunk to facilitate climbing, in order to reach the main 
branches. The tapping is done early in the morning and the 
sap gathered from the receptacles into which it has flowed 
from the incisions each evening. In showery weather it dries 
rapidly, and often has to be scraped away. The sap continues 
to exude from the wound for about seven days, and then 
a fresh, thin slice of bark is removed, which causes another 
exudation. This is repeated seven times with an interval of 
about seven days between each operation, so that the work on 
each tree occupies about fifty days. After being tapped, the 
tree is allowed a period of from five to seven years to recover ; 
the old wounds are then reopened and fresh ones made. A 
arge tree yields from 5 to 7 lbs. of varnish. This, as it 
exudes, is pure white in appearance, but quickly oxidizes to 
greyish-white, changing to black. To prevent contact with 
the air the crude varnish is covered as soon as possible with 
layers of oil-paper. 

Crude varnish furnishes only one colour, namely, black, and 
when applied to wood floors, or pillars, is the most indestructible 
varnish known. To obtain brown varnish " P'ei-yu " {ante, 
p. 66) is added, in the proportion of 25 to 50 per cent., to the 
crude varnish, according to the shade of brown required. The 
more " P'ei-yu " added, the quicker the varnish will dry. Red 
varnish is produced by adding cinnabar (mercuric sulphide) 
to brown varnish in about equal parts. Yellow varnish is 
obtained by adding to the " brown varnish " orpiment (arsenic 
sulphide) in slightly less than equal quantity. 

Enormous quantities of raw varnish are exported from 


central China to other parts of the Empire and to Japan. 
In 1910 the exports of varnish from Hankow totalled 15,424 
piculs, valued at Tls. 1,043,434. This commercial product 
is frequently adulterated with wood oil. Three tests for adul- 
teration are commonly employed — (i) Smell ; (2) the varnish 
is held up and allowed to drop, the strand of varnish will remain 
unbroken if it is pure, but will break if adulterated ; (3) placed 
on a sheet of soft Chinese paper, the varnish " runs," if it is 
adulterated, owing to the paper absorbing the oil adulterant. 
Everywhere in China this varnish is known to resident foreigners 
as " Ningpo varnish." The genesis of the name is interesting, 
since the substance itself is not produced in the neighbourhood 
of Ningpo, but is imported from Hankow and elsewhere. In 
the early days, when foreigners first settled at Shanghai, most 
of the carpenters employed to build houses for them were 
Ningpo men. For all indoor work — floors, pillars, and furni- 
ture — they employed this varnish, and foreigners promptly 
dubbed it " Ningpo varnish." 

A peculiarity of " Ningpo varnish," or Chinese lacquer, to 
use its correct name, is that it hardens only in a moist atmo- 
sphere and remains in a tacky condition if exposed to sunlight 
and heat, the essentials in hardening copal varnish. In China 
it is applied only during cloudy weather when the atmosphere 
is surcharged with moisture or when a drizzle of rain is falling. 
For indoor work its drying is facilitated by hanging about the 
rooms cloths saturated with water. The kind used on ships 
contains " P'ei-yu " in almost equal parts, and this mixture 
dries rapidly even in moderately dry, hot weather. How im- 
portant the knowledge of this peculiarity is may be gathered 
from the following fact. Many years ago an experimental 
consignment of " Ningpo varnish " was received in London. 
It was applied in the same way as ordinary copal varnish, in 
full sunlight and heat, with the result that it refused to harden, 
and remained " tacky," and the failure resulted in its being 
condemned as worthless ! 

The only change which takes place in the composition of 
the lacquer in drying at ordinary temperatures is the slow 
absorption of oxygen, finally amounting to 575 per cent, by 
weight of the original substance. Complete oxidation is found 



to be due to the action of a ferment, to which the name laccase 
has been appHed, which is only active in a certain humidity of 
the atmosphere. Quite recently, however, the presence of a 
special ferment has been questioned, and the absorption of 
oxygen attributed to an obscure chemical reaction depending on 
the presence of a compound of manganese with a proteid-like 
substance. Chinese lacquer, in a raw state, unfortunately 
possesses properties which are poisonous to many people, pro- 
ducing swellings and eruptions of the skin in the same way as 
does its close ally, the "Poison Ivy" {Rhus Toxicodendron). 
Certain people are immune, but this property will probably 
always militate against its use in Western lands. Perhaps the 
chemists wiU one day discover a means whereby this poisonous 
property can be neutralized or eliminated. 

The fruit of R. verniciflua is shining, greyish-yellow, 
roundish and flattened on two sides, 6 to 10 mm. long. These 
when crushed and treated in a wedge-press in the same way 
as wood oil seeds, yield a fatty oil known as " Che-yu," 
which is used for making candles. 

Trees belonging to three different families produce fruits 
rich in saponin which are in common use for laundry-work and 
other purposes. The most generally distributed of these 
" Soap trees " is Gleditsia sinensis, a handsome tree known col- 
loquially as " Tsao-k'o shu," abundant throughout the Yang- 
tsze Valley up to 3500 feet altitude. It grows 60 to 100 feet 
tall, and has a thick trunk, smooth grey bark, a spreading head 
with massive branches, furnished with small, pinnate leaves and 
inconspicuous greenish flowers, unisexual or hermaphrodite in 
character. The latter are followed by pods or " beans " which, 
when ripe, are black, 6 to 14 inches long and f to n^ inch wide. 
These pods are broken up and are in general use for ordinary 
laundry-work, producing a good lather in either cold or hot 
water. They are also used in the process of tanning hides. 
The saponaceous fat is contained in the pod itself, which is 
the only part utilized, the hard, flattened, brown seeds being 
discarded. It is probable that more than one species is included 
under the above name, for the Gleditsia family is in need of 
revision. In Yunnan another species which has much larger 
(20 inches) and wider pods is employed for the same purposes. 


It is known as G. Delavayi. Around Peking a third species, 
designated G. horrida, occurs. A much rarer Soap tree, 
except in the vicinity of Kiukiang, is Gymnocladus chinensis, 
the " Yu-tsao-chio " of the Chinese, which is the Asiatic repre- 
sentative of the " Kentucky Coffee tree " of North America. 
This tree grows 50 or 60 feet tall, and though occasion- 
ally seen with a fiat, fairly widespreading head, has usually 
only short branches ; the bark is smooth and light grey, the 
leaves much divided, often 2 feet across, pea-green in colour, 
and very handsome. The flowers, clustered, greyish without, 
purple within, are followed by flattened, brown pods, 3 or 4 
inches long, and i^ inch broad. These pods or " beans " are 
immersed for a time in hot water, which causes them to swell 
and become rounded in outline. Afterwards they are strung on 
short strips of bamboo and are then marketed. These swollen 
pods, colloquially " Fei-tsao-tou," are broken up and used in 
laundry- work, more especially for cleansing choice fabrics. 
They are also cut up into fine shreds and ground to a paste 
with sandalwood, cloves, putchuck, musk, camphor, etc., and 
thoroughly mixed with honey to form a perfumed soap called 
P'ing-she Fei-tsao (camphor-musk soap). This is a dark- 
coloured substance of the consistency of soft soap. It is used 
by women for cleansing their hair, and as a cosmetic for their 
hands and face ; also by barbers as a salve on the heads of their 
customers after shaving. 

Yet another Soap tree is Sapindus mukorossi, colloquially 
known as the " Hou-erh-tsao." This occurs throughout the 
Yangtsze Valley up to 3000 feet altitude, growing 60 to 80 feet 
tall, with a huge trunk, smooth grey bark, and widespreading 
umbrageous head ; the pinnate leaves are 8 to 12 inches long. 
The flowers are small, greenish-white, produced in large terminal 
panicles, and are followed by shining brown, globose fruits 
about the size of a large marble. The fruits are used for wash- 
ing white clothes, being considered for this purpose superior 
to the pods of Gleditsia. Each fruit contains a large, round, 
black seed. These are strung into rosaries and necklaces, which 
are much worn during hot weather. 

During recent years the demand for vegetable products 
useful for tanning purposes has become unlimited. For 


certain purposes Chinese nut-galls furnish the finest tanning 
material in the world. These "nut-galls" (" Wu-pei-tzu ") 
develop on the leaves of Rhus javanica, "Peh-fu-yang shu," as 
an excrescent growth due to protoplasmic irritation, occasioned 
by an insect [Chermes) which punctures the leaf to deposit its 
eggs. The tree is of small size, and very abundant in the 
Yangtsze Valley up to 3500 feet, more especially in rocky 
places, producing panicles of white flowers in late August and 
September. The galls are hollow and brittle, and vary con- 
siderably in shape and size, being more or less irregular, and i to 
4 inches long. In China they are used for dyeing blue silk and 
blue cotton cloth black. The Occidental demand for nut-galls 
is greater than the supply, and the exports increase annually. 
In 1900, 24,800 piculs, valued at Tls. 454,584, were exported 
from Hankow ; in 1910 the exports from this port had in- 
creased to 53,784 piculs, valued at Tls. 936,234. 

Another less common species is R. Potaninii, colloquially 
known as the " Ch'ing-fu-yang," which produces galls known 
as " Ch'i-pei-tzu." These are used in Chinese medicine. 
The world is sadly in need of an indelible black ink, and 
chemists might weU turn their attention to Chinese nut-galls in 
their quest for this treasure, since they possess possibilities 
worthy of investigation. 

In the chapter on fruits reference is made to the cultivated 
Persimmon {Diospyros kaki), but it is necessary here to 
mention the feral form, known as " Yu-shih-tzu " (literally 
" Oil Persimmon "). This wildling is abundant in the moun- 
tains of central and Western China up to 4000 feet altitude, 
where it forms a large tree 50 or 60 feet tall. The fruit varies 
from flattened-round to ovoid, and from f to 2^ inches in dia- 
meter. It is always rich golden yellow in colour when ripe, 
and this colour best distinguishes the smallest fruited forms 
from its close ally Diospyros Lotus, " Kou-shih-tzu," which has 
flattened-round fruit, dark purplish coloured when dead ripe. 
To obtain the varnish oil for which this tree is esteemed, the 
fruit is plucked in July when about the size of a crab-apple, 
and still green. By means of a wooden mallet the fruits are 
reduced to pulp, which is placed with cold water in large 
earthenware jars fitted with covers, and allowed to decompose. 


The contents of these jars are stirred occasionally, and at the 
end of thirty days the residue of the pulp is removed and the 
resultant liquid, now a nearly colourless varnish, is poured into 
other jars. To give the varnish a warm brown tint, the leaves 
of Ligustrum lucidum, " La shu," sometimes erroneously called 
the " Tung-ching shu," are steeped in the jars for ten days or 
so, according to depth of tint desired. This varnish is used for 
waterproofing purposes generally, its principal use being 
in the manufacture of umbrellas. For this purpose it is 
applied as a gum varnish between the several layers of paper 
forming the screen of the umbrella, and serves to make them 
adherent as well as waterproof. When completed, the 
umbrella receives a thin outside coating of " Kuang-yu," or 
lustrous oil [ante, p. 66). Persimmon varnish is widely used, 
and is in great demand for the above purposes. It is produced 
in most parts of China, but scarcely figures as an article of 

The art of making paper in China dates back to about the 
commencement of the Christian era. Previous to this, silk 
and cloth were employed for writing upon, but the early annals 
of the race were recorded on tablets of bamboo, and this latter 
method obtained in the days of Confucius (552-478 B.C.). 
What materials were first employed by the Chinese in paper- 
making are not known with certainty, but were probably 
bamboo or Paper- mulberry, " Kou shu " [Broussonetia papyri- 
fera). A good case in favour of the latter could be made out, 
since the inner bark of this tree requires less preparation than 
bamboo culms. True paper money first originated in the 
province of Szechuan during the reign of the first emperor 
of the Sung Dynasty (a.d. 960). A certain Chang-yung intro- 
duced it to take the place of the iron money then in use, which 
was inconveniently heavy and troublesome. These notes were 
called " Chih-tsi" or " Evidences," and were apparently made 
from the inner bark of the Paper-mulberry. Marco Polo, 
speaking of Kublai Khan's mint at Peking, says, " He makes 
them take of the bark of a certain tree, in fact, of the Mulberry 
tree, the leaves of which are the food of the silkworms — these 
trees being so numerous that whole districts are full of them. 
What they take is a certain fine white bast or skin which lies 



between the wood of the tree and the thick outer bark, and 
this they make into something resembhng sheets of paper, but 
black." The famous Venetian's error in calhng this the silk- 
worm Mulberry is pardonable enough, since the trees are very 
closely allied, and somewhat similar in appearance. Paper 
money is still made from the paper prepared from the bark of 
the " Kou shu," and the same paper, " P'i-chih " owing to its 
toughness, is used for wrapping up silver, for tags on silk goods, 
and as a lining between the fur or cotton and the outer fabric 
in fur-lined or wadded garments. The B. papyri/era occurs 
all over China up to 4000 feet altitude, and if left alone 
forms a much-branched tree 35 to 45 feet tall with a smooth 
dark grey bark. In a bush form it is abundant by the way- 
side and on cliffs. Most of the paper (which is called Kou- 
p'i-chih — literally bark paper) made from this tree and used 
in Western China comes from the province of Kweichou. In 
Hupeh the slender branches from young trees and bushes 
are cut into lengths, steamed in vats to facilitate the removal 
of the bark, which is converted into string and cordage. 

The material from which the original India paper (a 
Chinese, not an Indian product), which came from Canton, 
was made is unknown. Possibly it was prepared from Ramie 
fibre [Bcehmeria nivea), but I venture the suggestion that it 
may have been obtained from the bark of Broussonetia 

Bamboo supplies the material for the manufacture of all 
the better class papers used for printing and writing upon, 
papering windows, and a hundred and one other purposes. 
Several species are employed for this purpose, one of the 
commonest being Phyllostachys heterodada. This bamboo is 
abundant in central and Western China, especially in alluvial 
areas near streams up to 4000 feet altitude. It grows 12 to 
18 feet tall, with fairly slender dark green culms ; commonly 
it forms extensive groves. The stems cire cut into lengths, 
made into bundles, and immersed in concrete pits, being 
weighted down and kept under water by heavy stones. After 
three months they are removed, opened up, and thoroughly 
washed. Next they are restacked in layers, each layer being 
well sprinkled with lime and water, holding potash salts in 


solution. After two months they are well retted. The 
fibrous mass is then washed to remove the lime, steamed for 
fifteen days, when it is removed, thoroughly washed, and again 
placed in concrete tanks. The mass is next reduced to a fine 
pulp with wooden rakes, and is then ready for conversion into 
paper. A quantity of the pulp is put into troughs with cold 
water and mucilage prepared from the roots of Hibiscus 
Abelmoschus. An oblong bamboo frame, the size of the 
desired sheet of paper, having a fine mesh, is held at the two 
ends by a workman and drawn down endways and diagonally 
into the liquid contents, which are kept constantly stirred in 
the trough. It is then gently raised to the surface, and the 
film which has collected on the top is deposited as a sheet of 
moist paper when the frame is turned over. After the surplus 
water has drained away from the mass of moist sheets of 
paper the whole is submitted to pressure. It is then dried 
either in kilns or in the sun, according to quality, the sun- 
dried being the inferior. Since much water is necessary in 
the process of paper-making the mills are always erected 
alongside streams. 

The more common paper in daily use is made from rice- 
straw by a similar but less intricate and quicker process. The 
stems of a reed (Imperata arundinacea, var, Koenigii), known 
as "Mao-ts'ao," and common in many parts of Western 
China, are also used locally in the manufacture of paper, 
being frequently mixed with rice-straw. 

Chinese " rice-paper," so called by foreigners, is prepared 
from the pith of Tetrapanax papyrifera, a shrub closely allied 
to the common Ivy of Europe, and colloquially known as 
" T'ung-ts'ao." This plant has handsome palmate leaves, 
and stems filled with a pure white pith. This pith is cut, 
using a rolling, circular motion, by means of a sharp, heavy 
knife, into thin sheets. Formerly much of this cutting was 
done in Chungking, the raw material being imported from the 
province of Kweichou. Rice-paper is used by Chinese artists 
for painting upon, and also in the manufacture of artificial 

Sericulture and silk-weaving are among the most important 
industries of Szechuan, Nearly every part of the province 


produces silk, but there are certain well-defined areas in which 
the industry is famous — for example, Kiating Fu, Chengtu 
Fu, and Paoning Fu. Hosie ^ estimates the annual production 
of raw silk at lbs. 5,439,500, valued at Tls. 15,025,230. This 
industry has been exhaustively dealt with by Hosie (loc. cit.) 
and others, and I propose here only to mention briefly certain 
trees, the leaves of which the silkworms are fed upon. The 
overwhelming proportion of Szechuan silk is produced by the 
" worm " of Bomhyx mori, the common domesticated species, 
which is fed principally on the leaves of the White Mulberry 
{Morus alba), known as the " Sang shu." The Mulberry tree 
is abundantly cultivated up to 3000 feet altitude, and in the 
more populous parts of the province a traveller is seldom out 
of sight of groves of this tree. The trees are kept low by 
pollarding to admit of the leaves being easily gathered, but 
little attention is otherwise given them. Since the sup- 
pression of opium cultivation the officials have turned their 
attention to improving and extending the sericulture industry. 
The finest Chinese silk is produced in the neighbourhood of 
Hanchou in the Chekiang province, where a broad-leaved and 
particularly fine Mulberry is cultivated {M. alba, var. latifolia) , 
for the purpose of feeding the silkworms. The recently 
established Bureau of Agriculture at Chengtu Fu, and magis- 
trates in charge of certain districts, have introduced the 
Hanchou Mulberry in the hope of improving the local product. 
During the last two or three years there has been a consider- 
able increase in the area devoted to sericulture, and there is 
a possible danger of over-production. More attention might 
well be paid to the spinning of the yarn in order to produce a 
more even thread, which would result in a smoother and finer 
woven fabric. 

Around Kiating Fu the infant silkworms are fed for the 
first 22 days of their lives on the finely chopped leaves of 
Cudrania tricuspidata, the "Tsa" or "Cha shu," a low-growing 
tree (very often only a bush), closely allied to the Mulberry, 
with thorny branches and dark green, tough leaves. For the 
succeeding and final 26 days they are fed on the Mulberry. 
By feeding first on the Cudrania leaves, it is claimed that the 
^ Report on Province of Ssuch'uan, p. 5i, 


worms produce more silk of a tougher and more durable 
quality. Hosie ^ was the first to discover and make known this 
interesting fact to the outside world, and subsequent observers 
have confirmed his statements. 

Around Paoning Fu in the north, and Kikiang Hsien in 
the south, a certain amount of silk is obtained from the worm of 
Anther cea pernyi. This species feeds on the leaves of various 
scrub oaks, and being bivoltine, produces two crops a year. 
Several species of Oak are concerned, including Quercus 
variabilis, Q. serrata, Q. Fabri, and Q. aliena, all of which, 
though they attain to the dimensions of trees, are commonly 
met with from 2000 to 4000 feet in the form of bushes covering 
the hillsides. This Oak-feeding silkworm was introduced from 
the province of Shantung many years ago, and the industry 
is much more important in Kweichou province than it is in 
Szechuan. This " Wild-silk," as it is called, differs from 
ordinary silk in its harder texture and is spun from dry cocoons, 
whereas ordinary silk is spun from cocoons lying immersed in 
boiling water. 

In 1907, near the hamlet of Lu-yang-ho, alt. 2500 feet, in 
the north-west corner of Fang Hsien, I chanced upon several 
plantations of Ailanthus Vilmoriniana, grown for feeding 
the worm of Attacus cynthia. The trees were all young 
saplings. This was the only place in my travels where I saw 
this particular kind of sericulture practised. In parts of north- 
eastern China I understand it is more general, the species there 
employed being the ordinary Ailanthus glandulosa, the " Ch'ou- 
ch'un shu " of the Chinese, and " Tree of Heaven " of foreigners, 
^ Three Years in Western China, p. 21. 

Cultivated Shrubs and Herbs of Economic Value 

CHINESE agriculture is mainly devoted to the production 
of food-stuffs for local consumption, the surplus being 
disposed of by sale and the proceeds invested in the 
necessities or luxuries of life which cannot be produced locally. 
Nevertheless, in the more fertile parts of the Empire, certain 
economic crops other than those for culinary purposes are grown 
expressly for sale or exchange. This is particularly true of the 
rich province of Szechuan, where a number of such products 
are produced, as will be seen from the brief account of the more 
important which follows. 

Had this been written five years previously it would have 
been necessary to give considerable space to the Opium Poppy, 
but so vigorously has the edict for the suppression of this crop 
been promulgated that only a brief notice of it is necessary. 
When the Imperial Decree, prohibiting the cultivation and 
consumption of opium throughout the Chinese Empire within 
a period of ten years, was published on 20th September 1906, 
I confess to having been one of those who considered it a fatuous 
effort calculated to accomplish nothing, though well-meaning 
enough. It seemed impossible that such a gigantic task could 
be accomplished in such a brief period of time. Public senti- 
ment was obviously in favour of the Decree, but to certain 
provinces, for example Szechuan and Yunnan, the export of 
opium represented their principal source of income. That 
Indian opium could be dispensed with and none be incon- 
venienced save the wealthy opium-smoking connoisseurs living 
in the prosperous coast ports, was perfectly clear to any one 

who had travelled in Western China. In 1908 the area under 



poppy in Szechuan was far greater than it had ever been before. 
In 1910 I traversed this province from east to west and north 
to south, and was amazed to find the whole industry of poppy- 
growing blotted out of existence. Except in a few out-of-the- 
way places, where it was grown by stealth, the cultivation had 
ceased. What has happened since the end of 1910 1 do not know, 
but from what I saw brought to pass in a couple of seasons; 
together with the undoubted general disfavour in which opium- 
smoking was viewed by the people, I am constrained to think 
that the poppy and opium will disappear from China as it 
has done from Japan. The problem before officials, and more 
especially those of the western provinces, is to find a source 
of revenue to take the place of that formerly derived from 
opium. In 1904 Hosie estimated the production of opium 
in Szechuan at 250,000 piculs. In 1910 some 28,530 piculs 
of opium (produced in Szechuan, Yunnan, and Kweichou 
provinces), valued at about Tls. 29,000,000, passed through the 
port of Ichang. In 1909, 51,817 piculs passed through this port 
Formerly the exports of opium alone from Szechuan nearly 
sufficed to cover the imports of cotton-yarn and piece-goods, 
commodities essential to the people of that province. 

The literature on Chinese opium and opium-smoking in 
China is enormous, and with exception of what is written above; 
I desire to add only three significant facts, which, if known, 
are not generally appreciated. For the benefit of those who 
believe, and those who do not believe, that India, abetted by the 
British Government in times past, is responsible for the opium 
vice in China, I would mention that {a) opium has been known 
in China since the Tang Dynasty {a.d. 618), and was cultivated 
in Szechuan for medicinal purposes during the closing years 
of that Dynasty {circa a.d. 900) ; (&) the pipe used for 
smoking opium in China is of a design peculiar to the country 
itself ; (c) the races of Poppy cultivated in Western China are 
aUied to the races grown in Persia and quite distinct from those 
grown in India. 

It is known that in early times the peach, orange, and silk 
travelled from China by the ancient trade route across Central 
Asia to Persia, from whence they reached Europe. Is it not, 
therefore, reasonable enough to suppose that the opium poppy 


may have travelled from Persia to China by this same overland 
route ? 

The poppy is (or was) a winter crop in Szechuan, being 
garnered in April and May in ample time to prepare for the 
rice-crop. No other crop even remotely approximating the 
pecuniary value of opium can take its place. 

Several plants yielding fibres valued for textile and cordage 
purposes are grown in China. In Szechuan the most important 
of these is the true Hemp {Cannabis sativa), colloquially known 
as " Hou-ma." This crop is abundantly cultivated around 
Wenchiang Hsien and P'i Hsien. It is a spring crop, the seeds 
being sown in February and the plants harvested the end of 
May and beginning of June, just as they commence to flower. 
The stems are allowed to grow thickly together and reach 8 feet 
in height. The culms are reaped, stripped of their leaves, and 
often the fibre is removed there and then. More commonly, 
however, the stems are placed in pits filled with water and 
allowed to ret for a few days ; they are then removed, sun-dried, 
stacked in hollow cones, surrounded by mats, and bleached by 
burning sulphur beneath the heaps. After these processes the 
fibrous bark is stripped off by hand. The woody stems that 
remain after the bark has been removed are burned, and the 
ashes resulting, mixed with gunpowder, enter into the manu- 
facture of fire-crackers. Hemp, or " Hou-ma," is the best of 
the fibres produced in Western China for rope-making and 
cordage purposes generally. It is also used locally for making 
grain-sacks and coarse wearing apparel for the poorer classes. 
Quantities are used in the city of Paoning Fu for these latter 
purposes. It is in great demand on native river-craft and 
is largely exported down river to other parts of China. It is 
this hemp that is principally exported from Szechuan. True 
Hemp [Cannabis] is an annual and is grown as a summer crop 
in the mountains for the sake of its oil-containing seeds. 
Hemp oil is expressed and used as an illuminant and is said not 
to congeal in the coldest weather. In Hupeh it is known as 
" T'ang-ma." 

Another annual plant cultivated for its fibre is AbuHlon 
AvicenncB, the T'ung or T'uen-ma of Szechuan and Hupeh. This 
plant is widely cultivated as a summer crop in Western China 
VOL. 11. — 6 


up to 3000 feet altitude. The fibre is of inferior quality and is 
used locally for making cordage and in caulking boats, but is 
less valuable than that of the true Hemp (Cannabis) and less 
important as an article of export from Szechuan. Jute 
[Cor chorus capsularis), colloquially known in Szechuan as 
" Huang-ma," is very sparingly cultivated on the Chengtu 
Plain and elsewhere. It is not exported from the pro- 

The brown fibre from the leaf -bases of a palm, Tr achy- 
carpus excelsus, known in Hupeh as " Chung-ma," is the 
" coir-fibre " of the Yangtsze Valley. This " coir " is made 
into bales and exported down river from Szechuan in quantity. 
It is used for rope-making, mats and mattresses, brushes, 
is converted into rude raincapes, and is an all-round useful 

The most important textile plant in China is the much- 
discussed China-grass, Ramie, or Rhea [Boehmeria nivea). 
This member of the nettle family is both wild and cultivated 
in all the warmer parts of the Middle Kingdom up to 4000 feet 
altitude. It is a herbaceous perennial and grows 3 to 6 feet 
tall ; the leaves, broadly ovate, abruptly cuneate, or truncated 
at base, have dentate margins and are silvery on the underside. 
In Hupeh the wild plant is called " Ch'u-ma," the cultivated 
plant " Hsien-ma." In Szechuan the cultivated plant is also 
known as " Hsien-ma " and occasionally as " Yuang-ma," 
These various colloquial names are most perplexing and are 
almost hopelessly confused. 

In Szechuan small patches of this " China-grass " are to be 
found around nearly every peasant's home. South-west of 
Chungking and also north of Lu Chou in several districts, it 
is cultivated on a very extensive scale. Much of the fibre is 
woven into " grass-cloth " and used locally, A certain amount 
is also exported down river, Szechuan " grass-cloth " is rather 
coarse and very much inferior to that produced in parts of 
southern China. It is not a prominent export from the west. 
In 1910 the exports from Hankow amounted to 120,034 piculs, 
valued at Tls. 183,332. This is classified in the Customs 
returns as Ramie fibre, and does not include that woven into 

fe;. ^^--- 

^ jp«i ii"rT" 


Cotton-cultivation is a comparatively recent industry in 
China, having been introduced early in the eleventh century 
A.D., from Khoten. It met with strong opposition from those 
interested in the production of silk, China-grass; and other fibres, 
and was not fairly established until some time during the Yuan 
(Mongol) Dynasty (a.d. 1206-1386), when a public-spirited 
woman. Lady Hwang, distributed seeds throughout Kiangan, 
now the great cotton region of China. Chinese cotton has a 
notoriously short staple, but is strong and durable. It has 
undoubtedly become exhausted from lack of any attempt at 
seed-selection and from long cultivation in the same regions. 
Cotton-cultivation should receive early attention from the 
new Government, and seeds of standard varieties from India, 
Egypt, America, and elsewhere might be secured and experi- 
mentally grown. There is no question but that China could 
produce cotton infinitely superior to the present product 
if new and suitable varieties were obtained and properly 

Very little cotton, " Mien-hwa," is grown in Western 
China; and cotton-yarn and cloths are the great import 
into Szechuan. The value of foreign imports into Chung- 
king is about Tls. 20,000,000, five-sixths of which is made 
up of cotton manufactures, the bulk of which comes from 

Before the importation of mineral-oil from foreign countries 
became general, the only lamps in use were vessels filled with 
vegetable-oil and fitted with rush-wicks. These " rush- 
lights " are still in common use in the west, more especially 
among the poorer classes. The wick consists of the pith of 
J uncus effusus, known as " Teng-ts'ao," which is widely 
cultivated for this purpose. The plant grows 3 to 6 feet tall 
and is also largely employed in the manufacture of matting 
and mats used under bed-mattresses and on divans. It is 
expressly cultivated for this purpose in parts of Szechuan, 
the principal seat of the matting industry being Sui Fu, where 
both whole and split rushes are used. In Yunnan Scirpus 
lacustris, " Pu-chih-ts'ao," which produces stems 6 to 8 feet 
tall, cylindrical at base, gradually tapering upwards and 
becoming obtusely triangular near the summit, is used for mat- 


making. It is also sparingly employed for the same purpose 
in Szechuan, where, however, it is chiefly used by the shop- 
keepers as string. 

Rice-straw is largely used for making bed-mattresses 
and sandals and to a less extent for ropes. Wheat-straw is 
braided and used for making large, wide-brimmed summer 
hats. Certain districts like Shuangliu Hsien, near Chengtu, 
are famed for their straw-braid, but the industry is of local 
importance only. 

Tobacco {Nicotiana Tabacum), called " Yen," was probably 
introduced into China from America, contemporaneously with 
maize — just when is a matter of dispute, but some sinologues 
consider it was about a.d. 1530. It is cultivated all over 
China, and nowhere within the Middle Kingdom are finer 
tobacco leaves produced than in Szechuan. Within the rice- 
belt tobacco is a spring crop, the seeds being sown in late 
October and the crop harvested by mid-June. In the maize- 
belt it is grown as a summer crop but not extensively. The 
districts oiE Chint'ang and P'i Hsien, on the Chengtu Plain, 
are noted for their tobacco. In these districts one crop only 
is taken from the plants, but in the warmer parts of the province 
contiguous to the Yangtsze River, three crops are secured 
before the plants are ploughed under. 

Tobacco leaves are prepared in three ways : (i) the large 
leaves are dried on screens, kept flat, packed into bales to form 
" Ta-yen," or large tobacco ; (2) the smaller leaves are dried 
in the same way to form " Erh-yen," or second tobacco, which, 
when treated with Chinese rape-oil and red-earth (Tu-hung) 
is pressed and shaved into fine shreds and used for smoking 
in water-pipes, being known as " Shui-yen," or water tobacco ; 
(3) " So-yen," or cord tobacco, prepared by cutting off the 
leaves with a piece of the stem to form a hook, by means of 
which the leaves are suspended under the eaves of houses or 
from rafters indoors and allowed to dry, naturally shrivelling 
and curling in the process. This " So-yen " is rolled into rough 
cigars, which are inserted into the bowl of long-stemmed pipes 
and smoked. It is also exported from Szechuan. In the 
mountains up to 9000 feet altitude the smaU-leaved Nicotiana 
rustica, " Lan-hwa-yen," is sparingly cultivated for local use. 


This receives no preparation beyond being dried in the sun, and 
naturally the quality is very inferior. 

Undoubtedly the climate and soil of Szechuan are suitable 
for the growth of tobacco, but, unfortunately, the Chinese 
methods of curing the leaf are slovenly in the extreme, with the 
result that the prepared article is of low-grade quality. The 
Chinese are, unfortunately, fast becoming a nation of inveterate 
cigarette-smokers. Much of the local Szechuan tobacco could 
be used in the manufacture of cigarettes were proper factories 
erected. This has been done at Hankow and elsewhere, where 
cigarettes are manufactured from tobacco grown in the neigh- 
bourhood and in near-by provinces. 

Sugar is a very important crop in Western China, and 
enormous quantities are produced in certain parts of Szechuan, 
where it is cultivated in the drier regions of the rice-belt up 
to 2500 feet altitude. Two kinds of Sugar-cane {Saccharum 
officinarum) are grown : (i) red-cane, used for chewing ; 
(2) white-cane, for the extraction of sugar. The Red-cane 
(5. officinarum, var. rubricaule) produces culms 8 feet tall, an 
inch or more in diameter, and is treated as an annual. The 
canes are cut as they mature and sold as required ; the canes 
that remain at the end of the season are taken up by the roots 
in November, cleaned and stored in earth-burrows until re- 
quired for sale. About the end of March portions of these canes 
are laid lengthwise under the soil, and young growths that 
develop from each joint in due season constitute sugar-canes. 
These culms are dark red-purple outside, yellowish within, 
very firm, and rich in sugar. 

The White-cane (S. officinarum, var. sinense) is treated as a 
perennial, producing two or three crops before being renewed. 
It grows 10 to 15 feet tall, with " long-jointed " stems nearly 
an inch in diameter. This is much more extensively grown 
than the "red" variety, and supplies nearly all the sugar 
used locally or exported from the province. Chinese methods 
of crushing the cane are very imperfect, and their refining 
processes are most primitive. The canes contain a high 
percentage of saccharine, and the industry, if perfected, could 
become of vast importance. 

Sugar has been cultivated in China from time immemorial. 


It is everywhere called " T'ang," and generally supposed to 
commemorate the T'ang Dynasty (a.d. 684-907), one of the 
most famous in Chinese history. Sugar, however, was known 
to the Chinese at least as early as the second century B.C., 
and is mentioned in a poem which was written sometime 
between a.d. 78 and 139. 

Formerly the Chinese used only vegetable dyes for their 
silk and other fabrics, and it is much to be regretted that in 
China, as elsewhere in the world, these are being rapidly dis- 
placed by aniline dyes derived from coal-tar. The latter are 
more convenient to handle, but unfortunately the colours are 
not " fast." The coal-tar product is on sale in every town 
and market village in Western China, made up in small bottles 
and imported from Germany. 

The only dye-plant at all extensively grown in Szechuan 
to-day is Strohilanthes flaccidifolius , " T'ien-hwa," which 
produces an " indigo." In certain parts of the Chengtu 
Plain this is grown in quantity, and the same is true of the 
district of Mien Chou and elsewhere, but its cultivation is on 
the decline. It is planted on ridges which are kept flooded 
between. When the plants are about 3 feet tall they are cut 
down and the leafy shoots placed in concrete pits full of cold 
water. After steeping for about five days the stems are 
removed, leaving a green-coloured water. Slaked lime is 
placed in the water to precipitate the indigo. The water is 
allowed to drain off, and the dye is found deposited at the 
bottom of the pit. 

Around Shasi, in Hupeh, Polygonum tinctorium is cultivated 
as the source of an " indigo " which is there used for dyeing 
cotton cloth. 

As a red dye Saffiower [Carthamus tinctorius), " Hung-hwa," 
was formerly very extensively grown, but it is only occasionally 
met with to-day, though still esteemed for dyeing the more 
costly silk fabrics. The flowers of the Balsam [Impatiens 
Balsamina), colloquially " Chih-chia-ts'ao," are similarly used 
and valued. 

Yellow dyes are obtained from turmeric, the root of Cur- 
cuma longa, still extensively grown in Chienwei Hsien on the 
Lower Min River, and from the flowers of the Huai shu {Sophora 


japonica), a common and widely dispersed tree. Another, 
but much more rare tree {Kcelreuteria apiculata) , is known by 
the same colloquial name, and the flowers are used for the same 
purpose as those of the Sophora. The fruit of Gardenia 
florida, " Chih-tzu-hwa," is used for dyeing certain woods 
yellow, and also as a yellow colour in paint. 

Green dyes were formerly obtained from the leaves of 
Rhamnus davuricus, known as the " Tung-lu," a very common 
Chinese species of Buckthorn, extremely variable in the size 
and shape of its leaves and abundant as a thorny bush by 
the wayside everywhere up to 4000 feet altitude. Another 
species [Rhamnus tindonus), " Chiao-lu-tsze," was also em- 
ployed for the same purpose. These have been almost 
totally displaced by aniline dyes. 

As mentioned on page 73, the gall-nuts (Wu-pei-tzu) pro- 
duced on the leaves of Rhus javanica are extensively employed 
for dyeing fabrics — more especially silk — black. With this dye 
it is essential that the material be first dyed blue. The burr-like 
cupules of two very common species of Oak (Quercus serrata, 
Q. variabilis), known as the " Hwa-li " and " Hwa-k'o-li " 
respectively, are also commonly employed as black dye for 
silk-yarn and fabrics. In this case it is immaterial what the 
original colour may be. The curious cone-like fruits of 
Platycarya strohilacea, colloquially known as the " Huan- 
hsiang shu," are in general use as a black dye for cotton-yarn 
and cotton goods generally. Pine soot, obtained by burning 
the branches of the Common Pine [Pinus Massoniana), is also 
employed as a black dye for cotton goods. 

As a dark brown dye and tanning agent the tubers of a 
yam are commonly used in Yunnan and are exported in 
quantity to Tonking and elsewhere. It is probably Dioscorea 
rhipogonioides, a species common in Formosa, where it is called 
" Shu-lang " and much used for dyeing and tanning fish-nets. 
In western Hupeh the root-bark of Rosa BanksicB, called 
" Hu-p'i," is used for this purpose. 

Both sesamum and soy bean are cultivated extensively 
in Western China, but for local consumption only. The large 
exports of these products that pass through Hankow are 
brought down by the Peking-Hankow railway. Szechuan is 


capable of growing enormous quantities of these valuable 
plants, but cheaper and better facilities for transport are 
necessary before the products can become articles of external 
trade. When the much-discussed Hankow-Szechuan railway 
is fait accompli the raw products of the west will be available 
as articles of export, and a much-needed stimulus given to 
the agricultural industries of the regions concerned. 


The Tea Industry for the Thibetan Markets 

THE most widely known product of China is, of course, 
Tea, "Ch'a," which to-day is very extensively cultivated 
in India, Ceylon, and Java, and also experimentally in 
several other countries. In China the value of this plant has 
been appreciated from very early times. It is known to have 
been cultivated in Szechuan during the early Han Dynasty 
(202 B.c.-A.D. 25). However, it was not in general use among 
all classes before the sixth and seventh centuries a.d. Very 
early in the seventeenth century tea first became known in 
Europe, having been brought from China by Dutch traders. 

The Tea plant [Thea sinensis) is considered to be a native 
of Assam, whence it was long ago introduced and cultivated in 
China. Augustine Henry, in 1896, received through a Chinese 
collector whom he had trained specimens of undoubted Wild 
Tea. Henry writes : ^ " Hitherto the Tea plant has been found 
wild only in Assam, the cases of its spontaneity recorded from 
China being very doubtful. In all my trips in Szechuan and 
Hupeh I never met with it. The present specimens are above 
suspicion, coming from virginal forest (in the extreme south- 
south-east corner of Yunnan) and at an immense distance from 
any tea-cultivation, the nearest being P'uerh, 200 miles west. 
Bretschneider, in his Botanicon Sinicum, Part II, p. 130, has 
some remarks on the antiquity of tea in China. It is probable 
that it was found wild in these southern provinces which did 
not form a part of the ancient Chinese Empire, and I dare say 
it will be found wild in these mountains from Mengtse to 
Szemao. It is not probable at all that tea came from so far away 

^ Kew Bulletin, 1897, p. 100. 


as Assam." I have italicized Henry's concluding statement, 
with which I most emphatically agree. As recorded in Vol. I, 
Chapter VIII, I discovered specimens of the Tea plant in north- 
central Szechuan growing in situations which left no good reason 
for regarding them as other than spontaneous. However, in 
view of the long-cultivated character of this shrub I prefer to 
regard them as " probably wild plants." It is worthy of note 
that growing in the same locality I found wild plants of the 
Tea Rose {Rosa indica) in some quantity. The Tea plant is an 
evergreen, belonging to the rain-forest area of the temperate 
zone in China. This represents the rice-belt throughout 
the Yangtsze Valley, which has long since been cleared in aU 
but the most precipitous places to make way for cultivation. 
This fact would account for the present absence of the Tea 
plant in a wild state in these regions. 

The great tea-growing districts for export trade with the 
Occident and for consumption within China itself are in the 
middle-eastern parts of the Empire. The export trade in this 
commodity has declined enormously during the last quarter 
of a century. Some 60 years ago the tea industry was intro- 
duced as a business into India and Ceylon, with the result 
that to-day these countries supply the greater portion of the 
world's demand. Antiquated methods of cultivation and 
preparation, absence of co-operation amongst the growers, 
and heavy taxation, are responsible for the decline of the 
Chinese product. It is true that Chinese tea is in quality 
and delicacy of flavour far ahead of Indian and Ceylon teas, 
but tea-drinkers generally have acquired a taste for the rougher, 
dark - coloured teas, and China's conservative methods are 
killing what was once her greatest export industry. Hankow 
is to-day the great tea-mart of China, the trade being largely 
in the hands of Russians. Large factories have been estab- 
lished expressly for the purpose of preparing teas for the 
Russian market, Indian and Ceylon teas being imported for 
blending purposes. In 1910 the exports of tea from Hankow 
were valued at Tls. 18,423,474. 

With the ordinary tea industry of eastern China we are 
not further concerned, but in the west a specialized form of this 
obtains which merits a detailed description. Tea is grown all 


over Szechuan for provincial consumption, but in the western 
parts it assumes much greater magnitude, being there grown 
and specially prepared for the Thibetan market. The one 
great export from China to Thibet is tea, either in the form of 
compressed " bricks " or " bales." The subsidy given by the 
Chinese Government to the Thibetan authorities at Lhassa 
and elsewhere in Thibet is also paid in tea. 

To the Thibetans tea is an absolute necessity of life, and 
deprived of this astringent they suffer in various ways. That 
astringency is one of the properties most desired is evidenced 
by the fact that the bark of Oak trees is ofttimes used when 
tea cannot be obtained. The ordinary everyday meal of these 
people consists of tea mixed with a little butter and salt. 
To this mixture roasted barley-meal is added, and the whole is 
kneaded to the consistency of dough, in which condition it is 
eaten. Buttered tea is also their national beverage. To the 
European palate this concoction as prepared by the Thibetans 
bears only the remotest possible resemblance to " tea." I have 
tried it often but never succeeded in persuading myself to 
like it. 

Much has been written on the possibility of Indian tea- 
planters having a share in this tea trade with Thibet. From 
the close proximity of Assam to Lhassa and south-eastern 
Thibet generally, one would suppose that the difficulties would 
not be very great, yet the trade has made little progress. The 
opposition of the Lamas and the obstinate conservatism of the 
people are very real difficulties in the way. There is also 
another and equally important factor which should not be 
lost sight of, namely, the nature and quality of the tea that 
is in demand. Now it is safe to say that the veriest sweepings 
from the Indian tea factories would make better tea than that 
partaken of by the average Thibetan ; but this is not the 
important point. To secure a share of this trade Indian 
planters must be prepared to supply the Thibetans with the 
kind of article to which they are accustomed, and not with 
something different, even though it be of a superior quality. 
The trade is very considerable and worth striving after ; further- 
more, there is no reason why it should not be increased. I was 
travelling on the Chino-Thibetan frontier during the time 


of the British Expedition to Lhassa, and discussed with Chinese 
merchants interested in the Thibetan tea trade the possibiHty 
of India taking a share in the trade. It was very evident that 
they greatly feared Indian competition, and were keenly alive 
to the possibilities of it. From Darjeeling to Lhassa is only 
about 30 stages (350 miles approx.), whilst from Tachienlu the 
journey occupies over three months. The physical difficulties 
of the route are greater on the Chinese than on the Indian side, 
yet the people of Lhassa still draw their tea-supply from China. 
And further, Chinese tea, apart from that taken in exchange 
for musk, skins, wool, gold, and medicines, was, until very 
recently, paid for by the Thibetans in Indian rupees. 

The brick-tea prepared for Thibet is a totally different 
article from that prepared in Hankow for the Russian market. 
It is also so totally different from ordinary Chinese tea that 
some have supposed it to be the product of a distinct plant. 
My wanderings in Western China led me through the tea- 
producing areas and the markets which supply the commodity 
to the Thibetans, my observations, therefore, may be of interest 
and value. 

The two great trade-marts for China and Thibet are Tachien- 
lu, in the west of Szechuan, and Sungpan, in the extreme north- 
west corner of that province. The official route to Lhassa 
passes through Tachienlu, and this town is the mart for southern 
and central Thibet, including Lhassa, Chamdo, and Derge. 
The mart for the Amdo and Kokonor regions generally is 
Sungpan. At this latter town the trade is purely one of barter, 
tea being taken in exchange for furs, wool, musk, and 
medicines. The tea for the two markets is prepared very 
differently, grown in distinct localities, and is best discussed 

The tea for the Tachienlu market is practically all grown 
within the prefecture of Yachou Fu, more especially in the 
mountainous districts to the north-west and south of the town. 
The manufacturing business is controlled by the Government 
and provincial authorities, who issue a definite number of 
licences to establishments in the towns of Yachou, Mingshan, 
Yungching, and T'ienchiian — all within the Yachou prefecture. 
The independent department of Kiung Chou, a little to the north- 



east of Yachou, also has a share in this trade, but there the 
hcences are all issued by the Imperial Government and are not 
connected with the provincial authorities at Chengtu. The 
industry is a very ancient one, the plant itself having been 
grown in this vicinity since the dawn of the Christian era. 

To supply the licensed establishments the peasants and 
farmers cultivate the tea plant. The culture extends up to 
4000 feet altitude, the bushes being planted round the sides of 
the terraced fields on the mountain-sides. Very little attention 
is given them and they are usually allowed to grow smothered 
in coarse weeds to a height of from 3 to 6 feet. Less frequently 
are the bushes kept free of weeds. During the summer months 
the leaves and young twigs are plucked off and placed, handfuls 
at a time, in heated pans for a few minutes, and then spread 
out in the sun to dry. They are then collected into large 
sacks or into loose bales and carried down to the towns and 
villages, where they are purchased by agents of the tea 
establishments. Occasionally the bushes, when they have 
become old, are cut down, the branches dried in the sun, and 
afterwards tied into bundles and carried down for sale. The 
very young leaves and tips of the shoots are commonly gathered 
by the growers and prepared into tea for home consumption 
and local trade, the old coarse leaves and branches being con- 
sidered good enough for the Thibetans. 

I visited a brick-tea factory in Yachou, where I observed 
the following processes of manufacture : The sacks of leaves 
and bundles of leafy sticks, after they had fermented for 
a few days, were taken in hand by women and children who 
picked off the leaves and shoots, sorting them into four grades, 
each grade being determined by the size and age of the leaves. 
The sticks, often i to 2 inches in circumference, after the 
leaves have been removed, were chopped small by means of a 
large knife fixed in a block of wood. Mixed with coarse leaves 
and sweepings these chopped-up sticks constitute the fourth 
grade. A small packet of the very worst of this grade is 
inserted in the ends of each bamboo-cylinder as a gratuity 
to the repackers and muleteers at Tachienlu. 

A certain British cunsul has likened this brick-tea to 
" crows' nests pressed into cakes." This aptly describes the 


product so far as the fourth quahty is concerned, but the first 
quahty, prepared at Yachou, is really very good tea. I was 
surprised at the care and attention bestowed on its manu- 
facture, the processes being as follows : After the leaves had 
been sorted and graded they were steamed in a cloth suspended 
over a boiler. The steamed mass was then put into collapsible 
moulds, together with a little of the dust from smashed sticks 
and leaves which had been treated with glutinous rice-water 
to make it cohere, and then the whole was submitted to great 
pressure. When the mould was removed the tea was in the 
form of bricks (Chuan), each measuring ii inches by 4 inches 
and weighing 6 English pounds. After being dried for three 
days, these bricks are wrapped in paper on which the maker's 
trade-mark is stamped, a patch of gold-leaf of minute pro- 
portions or a plain piece of red paper to denote the quality 
being also enclosed. Four of the bricks are then placed end 
to end in a plaited bamboo-cylinder, and after this has been 
fastened at the ends the tea is ready for transit. These 
bamboo-cylinders, when filled with tea, are called " Pao " ; they 
weigh 25 lbs. and measure about 4 feet in length. They are 
carried on the backs of coolies to the town of Tachienlu, where 
they pass into the hands of Thibetans. The bricks of the 
finer quality teas and those intended for the interior of Thibet 
and distant Lhassa, are removed from the bamboo-cylinders 
and repacked, 12 together, in raw yak-hides, with the hair 
inside and the free edges neatly sewn together. The inferior 
quality teas are largely consumed in eastern Thibet and 
are not repacked. From Tachienlu the packages are carried 
on the backs of yak and mules to their destination. 

The " Pao " packed in Yachou city always weigh 18 catties ^ 
(24 lbs. English), but in other places they vary according to 
quality, being either 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16 catties, each town 
having its own particular weight for the different qualities. 
Tea from Yachou city and Yungching Hsien follow the main 
road ; that from Mingshan and T'iench'uan a by-road. 
Both routes converge at the town of Luting chiao, and there 
pay toll on crossing the river. Either route is terribly difficult, 
and one marvels how such loads can be carried by men over 

^ Catty =1 J English pounds. 


such fearfully mountainous roads. The average load consists 
of 10 pao of 18 catties each. But loads of 12 and 13 pao are 
very common, and on several occasions I have seen men 
carrying 20 pao. These, however, only weighed 14 catties 
each, but even then the total weight of the load was 370 
English pounds ! 

The distance between Yachou and Tachienlu is about 
140 miles (probably less), and the journey for coolies laden 
with tea occupies 20 days. Although the work is so inhuman, 
thousands of men and boys are engaged in this traffic. With 
their huge loads they are forced to rest every hundred yards or 
so, and as it would be impossible for the carrier to raise his 
burden if it were once deposited on the ground he carries a 
short crutch, with which he supports it when resting, without 
releasing himself from the slings. 

For each pao carried from Yachou to Tachienlu the carrier 
receives 400 cash (about a shilling in English money). Out of 
this he has to keep himself and pay for his lodgings. Never- 
theless, the pay is really good for the country, and it is this 
extra remuneration that tempts so many to engage in this 

It is very difficult to obtain accurate information as to the 
extent of this transfrontier tea-trade, but statistics culled from 
various, more or less reliable, sources, show that at the lowest 
estimate some 5400 tons of brick tea worth approximately 
£150,000 enter Tachienlu annually. 

Tea for the Sungpan market is grown in two distinct 
localities, in the west and north-north-west of the Chengtu 
Plain respectively. Each district has its own peculiar mode 
of packing the product. In the west it is grown in the 
mountains bordering the banks of the Min River in the district 
of Kuan Hsien. A centre of the industry is the market 
village of Shui-mo-kou, some 90 li beyond the city of Kuan 
Hsien itself. This tea is not pressed into bricks after the 
manner of that for the Tachienlu market, but is made into 
rectangular bales some 2^ feet by 2^ feet by i foot each, 
weighing 120 catties (160 English pounds), and covered with 
bamboo-matting. A considerable quantity of this tea finds a 
market among the Chiarung tribes, the distributing centres 


being Monking Ting and Lif an Ting. The mountainous regions 
of An Hsien and Shihch'uan Hsien constitute the north-western 
tea district, the principal centre being the market village of 
Lei-ku-ping within the district of An Hsien. The prepared 
product, however, all passes through Shihch'uan Hsien, and 
is controlled by specially appointed officials. The tea prepared 
in this region is packed in oval bales, each weighing 65 to 70 
catties (about 90 English pounds), encased in the usual 

The routes by which Kuan Hsien and Shihch'uan Hsien 
teas travel converge at Mao Chou, an important town situated 
on the left bank of the Upper Min River, six days' journey 
south of Sungpan Ting. To Mao Chou the tea is mostly carried 
by men, two small or one large bale being the usual load. From 
Mao Chou to Sungpan mules and ponies are largely employed 
for transporting it, their loads being twice the weight of those 
carried by men. Both women and men, however, are also 
engaged in the carriage of tea from Mao Chou northward, 
and the merchants constantly complain of insufficient means 
of transport. 

The preparatory processes undergone by the tea destined 
for the Sungpan market are less intricate than those described 
for brick tea. The leaves and young branches are gathered, 
panned, and dried in the sun. The panning process is some- 
times omitted, and very commonly the bushes and their 
overgrowth of coarse weeds are cut together, dried in the 
sun, and tied into bundles. The leaves are collected into 
sacks or bales, and with the bundles of leafy sticks carried down 
to the market villages and sold to tea establishments. The 
manufacturers allow the leaves to ferment in heaps for a few 
days, and afterwards submit them to a rough sorting. The 
sticks are chopped up with the coarse leaves and steamed over 
a large pan of boiling water. The moist, heated mass is then 
firmly pressed into bales, covered with matting, and allowed 
to dry. 

The tea is practically all of one quality, and very little 
superior to the most inferior kind entering Tachienlu. Cheap- 
ness is the main consideration, a bale of 120 catties being 
valued in Sungpan at Tls, 8. This trade is a monopoly in 


the hands of five establishments, which pay to the provincial 
government at Chengtu a fixed tax of about i cent, per catty. 
Payment is done by purchasing permits called " Yin piao," 
which bear the official stamp. Each permit covers a bale of 
120 catties or two smaller ones, and costs Tls. i"20. 

Whereas at Tachienlu the tea passes directly into the 
hands of Thibetans, at Sungpan it remains in the hands of the 
five tea establishments. These are owned by Mohammedan 
Chinese, who, in addition to carrying on a considerable local 
trade, have trusted agents travelling all over north-eastern 
Thibet bartering tea for furs, wool, musk, medicines, and 
other Thibetan commodities. 

The tea-trade of Sungpan is an improving one, but it is 
practically impossible to obtain reliable figures of its volume. 
There are, of course, Chinese Official Returns stating the 
number of " Yin piao " sold annually, but where official 
peculation is so general such returns are notoriously untrust- 
worthy. Piecing together information gathered diuing my 
three visits to Sungpan, I suggest that the tea-trade averages 
about £75,000 annually. 

From all sources the total annual value of the tea exported 
from China to Thibet is about a quarter of a million sterHng. 
On paper this may not appear very great, but if the sparse 
population of Thibet and the difficult means of intercommunica- 
tion be duly considered, it will be seen that the trade is really 
a very considerable one. Indian teas cannot compete with 
the Chinese product in central and northern Thibet, but 
around Lhassa and in southern Thibet generally, they ought 
to command a market. 

In all the larger medicine shops in Szechuan and, incident- 
ally, elsewhere in the Empire, a product known as " P'uerh 
tea " is on sale. It is packed in circular cakes, flat at top and 
bottom, about 8 inches across, and covered with bamboo 
leaves fastened by strips of palm leaves. This tea is grown in 
the Shan states, largely in the district of I'bang, and is the 
product of a variety of the true Tea plant {Thea sinensis, var. 
assamica). It takes its name from P'uerh Fu, a prefecture 
in southern Yunnan, and the trade entrepot of that region. 
The leaves, after the necessary' preliminary processes, are 
VOL. II.— 7 


steamed and pressed into the cakes, in which form they are 
easily transported. P'uerh tea has a bitter flavour, and is 
famous as a medicine all over China, being esteemed as a 
digestive and nervous stimulant. It also finds its way into 
the wealthy lamaseries of Thibet, where its medicinal 
properties are highly appreciated. 

Although a beverage known as tea is partaken of throughout 
the length and breadth of the Middle Kingdom, it is by no 
means all infused from the leaves of the genuine tea plant. 
In the mountainous parts of central and Western China many 
substitutes are employed by the peasants, who seldom taste the 
real article. In western Hupeh the leaves of several kinds of 
Wild Pear and Apple, grouped under the colloquial name of 
"T'ang-li-tzu," are used as a source of tea and exported to 
Shasi for the same purpose. The infusion prepared from these 
leaves is of a rich brown colour, very palatable and thirst- 
quenching. It is called Hung-ch'a (red tea), and is in 
general use among the poorer classes in the west. 

The leaves of Pyracantha crenulata, the Chinese " Buisson 
ardent," are also in common use as a source of tea. This ever- 
green is everywhere abundant up to 4500 feet altitude, and is 
known as the " Ch'a kuo-tzu," literally, " Tea shrub." Like 
its European relative it produces a wealth of scarlet fruit in 
autumn. The leaves of several species of Spiraea (S. Henryi, 
S. Blumei, S. chinensis, and S. hirsuta) are less commonly used 
as tea, being known as " Tsui-Ian ch'a." The leaves of the 
Weeping Willow {Salix hahylonica) are occasionally employed 
as tea, and in the Upper Min Valley chips of willow-wood are 
likewise used. I have drxmk all these various " teas," but 
that infused from these willow-chips was the worst, being de- 
cidedly weak and nasty ! 

In the chapter on Mount Omei mention is made of the sweet 
tea prepared from the leaves of Viburnum theiferum. The 
leaves of the common White Mulberry, steamed, mixed with 
cabbage-oil, and pressed into cakes, constitute " Ku-ting-ch'a" 
(bitter tea). The infusion prepared from this is drunk in hot 
weather and esteemed as a coohng beverage. 

The product known as tea-oil is not produced by the 
tea plant, but is expressed from the seeds of Thea Sasanqua, 


known as the " Ch'a-yu kuo-tzu," a relative of the true tea 
plant, from which it may be readily distinguished by its hairy 
shoots. It is a shrub, common as a wild plant in the sandstone 
ravines of north-central Szechuan. In parts of eastern China 
it is abundantly cultivated for the sake of its oil, but in the 
west I only met with plantations in the district of An Hsien. 
It is, however, reported as being cultivated in the department 
of Kiung Chou and elsewhere. The oil is used to adulterate 
cabbage-oil, and by Chinese ladies as a dressing for their hair. 
The refuse cake is valued as a fertilizer, and when applied to 
rice fields is said to destroy the earth-worms which often 
attack the young rice plants. 


NEXT to sericulture the most important industry in 
the prefecture of Kiating is that concerned with the 
production of insect white-wax or " Peh-la." This 
product has attracted the attention of many travellers, and has 
been often discussed before. It possesses several peculiarly 
interesting features, and cannot be omitted from any account of 
the economic products of western Szechuan. It is produced 
by a scale-insect {Coccus fela), and is deposited on the branches 
of an Ash {Fraxinus chinensis) and a Privet {Ligustrum 
lucidum) ; the scale-insects are bred in one district and trans- 
ported to another for the production of the wax. All this 
sounds very simple, yet it has taken nearly five centuries to 
establish these facts. According to Chinese historians insect 
white-wax first became known to the Chinese about the middle 
of the thirteenth century. Nicolas Trigault, a Jesuit mission- 
ary, wrote some account of the industry in parts of Eastern 
China in the year 1615. During succeeding centuries several 
accounts of it were published, but it was not until 1853, when 
Mr. William Lockhart, of Shanghai, sent specimens of crude 
wax to England, that the wax-producing insect became 
scientifically known in England. In the crude wax a number 
of dried, full-grown bodies of the female insect were discovered, 
and were identified by Westwood as a new species of Coccus. 
Robert Fortune, in his travels around Ningpo in 1853, had 
noted the industry, and stated that " the tree on which the wax 
is deposited is undoubtedly a species of Ash." In 1872 the 
illustrious Baron Richthofen wrote of the production of insect 
white-wax in Western China, a fact not previously known to 
the people of the Occident. 

In 1879 Mr. E. C. Baber made a lengthy report on the 


white-wax industry of Western China from observations near 
Fulin. Unfortunately, this talented observer possessed no 
botanical knowledge, and, being misled by vernacular names, 
he increased if anything the mystery which shrouded the 
botanical aspect of the subject. 

In 1884 Mr. (now Sir Alexander) Hosie, then Consular 
Agent at Chungking, undertook, at the instigation of the Kew 
authorities, the thorough investigation of the subject. He 
travelled through the principal wax-producing districts of 
Szechuan, collected specimens of the two host-plants and of 
the wax itself, noted the mode of culture and the preparation 
of the commercial white-wax. The two host-plants were 
identified by the Kew authorities as Ligustrum lucidum and 
Fraxinus chinensis, the first named being the tree on which 
the insects breed and the latter the tree on which the wax is 
deposited. There can be Httle doubt that the Ligustrum is 
the natural host of the wax-insect, and much of the difficulty 
in elucidating the subject was due to the fact that this tree 
has two or three different vernacular names. In central and 
Western China it is usually designated the " La shu " (Wax 
tree) or " Ch'ung shu " (Insect tree), but it is occasionally, 
and particularly in the eastern provinces, called the " Tung- 
ching shu." This last name simply means " Winter-green 
tree," and is usually apphed to Xylosma racemosum, var. 
pubescens, a tree commonly planted around shrines and 
tombs. Many wild guesses were made as to the identity 
of this " Tung-ching shu," and with each guess the subject 
became further involved. 

The districts of Omei Hsien and Hungya Hsien, both within 
the prefecture of Kiating, are the headquarters of the wax- 
producing industry, but the insects are bred in the Chiench'ang 
Valley, in the prefecture of Ningyuan Fu, nearly 200 miles 
distant. A few insects are bred near the town of Chienwei 
Hsien, a day's journey to the south of Kiating, but these are 
said not to produce so much wax or of such good quality as 
those from the Chiench'ang VaUey. 

The insects develop during the winter months, and the 
cone-like scale or " gall " is ready for removal about the end of 
April, being then full of the minute eggs of the insect. So far 


as my observations go, they indicate that it is always on the 
Privet that the insect breeds, but Baber asserts that either 
tree will serve, and this is probably true. 

Several of these cone-Hke scales, full of eggs, are wrapped 
together in thin paper bags, which are arranged in airy crates 
and carried by porters with all possible speed to the city of 
Hungya, where they are disposed of to the farmers. During 
the month of Ma}'^ hundreds of coolies are engaged in this traffic. 
The larvae hatch out quickly, more especially if the season is 
hot and early, in which case the travelling is mostly done at 
night by the aid of lanterns. The journey of nearly 200 miles 
over difficult mountain roads is accomplished in six days. 
Aided by relays, the porters who carry these insects cover 
30 to 40 miles per day ; in ordinary circumstances 20 miles 
a day is a high average for porters in the west. 

For the production of the wax it is immaterial whether the 
Ligustrum or Fraxinus is used. Some districts favour the 
latter, others the former ; very frequently the two trees are 
grown side by side. The trees are planted round the edges of 
the fields, and are polled some 5 or 6 feet from the ground. The 
lateral shoots, which develop from the polled heads, are always 
one or more years old ere the insects are placed on them. The 
propagation of these trees is effected by taking thick branches, 
slicing off a portion of the bark and a little of the wood, and 
surrounding the incised area with a ball of mud and straw. 
Roots form in the baU of mud, and the branch is then 
severed from the parent tree, and is planted at the side of a 
field, where it quickly develops into a tree. 

In the wax-producing area of the Kiating prefecture 
myriads of these pollarded trees are cultivated by the farmers 
and peasants. Previous to the arrival of the insects in May, 
the branches on which it is intended to place insects are 
denuded of their laterals along the basal half of their length. 
The cultivator, having purchased his insects, wraps loosely a 
few cones in a broad leaf and suspends these tiny " bags " 
among the branches of either Fraxinus or Ligustrum trees, or 
of both. The larvae quickly hatch out and crawl up into the 
tree and ascend to the leaves, where they remain for fourteen 
days until " their mouths and limbs are strong." During this 



period they are said to " moult," casting off " a hairy garment 
which forms in the earliest larval stage." After this period 
the insects descend to the naked branches, on the underside 
of which they attach themselves and commence at once 
to deposit wax. During this early stage heavy rains and 
wind are much dreaded, since they dislodge the insects, 
and consequently ruin the business for the season. The 
deposit of wax, which at first looks very like hoar-frost on 
the branches, continues up to the latter end of August. 
(The Chinese reckon 100 days from the time of suspending 
the insects in the trees.) The deposit is always heaviest on 
the underside of the branch, and seldom extends equally all 
round it. 

About the end of August the white coating is scraped from 
the branches (very often the branches are cut off) and thrown 
into boiling water. The wax is dissolved and floats on the 
surface of the water. It is collected by being skimmed off, 
and whilst in a plastic state is moulded into thick saucer- 
shaped cakes. The insects sink to the bottom of the vessel 
containing the boiling water, and are collected and thoroughly 
crushed to express every particle of wax before being finally 
flung to the pigs. 

The wax excretion has been attributed to disease, but 
in the light of present knowledge it seems feasible to regard it 
merely as a device on the part of Nature to protect the insect 
from its enemies. The Chinese idea is that the insects live on 
dew, and the wax perspires from their bodies ! 

The natural enemy of the wax-insect is a species of " Lady- 
bird," which breeds with them and preys on the larvae. The 
Chinese designate this enemy " Wax- dog " (La-gho). After 
the larvse have hatched out, the farmer visits his trees in 
the heat of the day, and belabours their stumps with a club 
for the purpose of dislodging this foe. 

The co-operation which obtains in this industry between 
two separate and distinct districts has led to much confusion. 
The explanation seems to be that owing to peculiar climatic 
conditions the insect breeds freely in Chiench'ang Valley, and 
for similar reasons deposits wax freely in the Kiating pre- 
fecture. At any rate, it is obvious that one cannot have wax 


and insects too, since to obtain the former it is necessary to 
kill the latter by immersion in boiling water. I am convinced 
that the co-operation or mutual dependency is simply one of 
self-interest on the part of both districts. 

Insect white-wax bears a close resemblance to spermaceti, 
but is much harder. It is colourless and inodorous, or nearly 
so, tasteless, brittle, and readily pulverisable at 60° F. It is 
slightly soluble in alcohol, and dissolves with great facility 
in naphtha, out of which fluid it may be crystalhzed. It melts 
at about 180° F., floats in water, and is said to harden by 
long immersion in cold water. 

The wax is largely used in the manufacture of Chinese 
candles, a little being mixed with the fats and oils employed in 
their manufacture ; a thin coating is also applied to the outside 
of the candles. The best candles contain 2| ounces to the lb., 
inferior ones not more than i ounce. Since the ordinary 
fats and oils melt at about 100° F., the advantage of an outer 
coating of white-wax with its high melting-point is obvious. 
In paper-shops insect white-wax is largely employed to impart 
a gloss to the higher grades of paper. In medicine-shops it 
is universally used as a coating for pills, and is itself supposed 
to possess medicinal properties. It is also employed as a 
polish on jade and soap-stone ware and on the more delicate 
articles of furniture, to give lustre to cloth, and is made into 
ornaments of Buddha ; but its primary uses are in the manu- 
facture of candles and in paper-glazing. 

The annual output varies considerably, the industry being 
almost entirely dependent upon suitable climatic conditions. 
In poor seasons 50,000 piculs is an average crop, whereas in 
very favourable years it is more than double this quantity. 
Formerly the prefecture of Paoning produced a fair amount 
of white-wax, but the industry has there become neglected 
of recent years. To-day practically the whole supply of 
Western China is produced in the Kiating prefecture. 

In spite of the increased consumption of foreign candles 
and kerosene oil, the demand for insect white-wax remains 
steady, and the industry concerned with its production shows 
very little sign of decline. In Western China, owing chiefly 
to difficulties and dangers of navigation on the Yangtsze, 


and the consequent heavy freights, foreign goods are an 
expensive luxury enjoyed only by the wealthy. With the 
advent of railways vast changes will certainly take place, and 
this interesting insect-wax industry may at some future date 
become extinct. 



Pheasants and other Game Birds 

TRAVELLER in Western China who is fond of the sport 
will, in season and from time to time, have opportunity 
of enjoying some good rough shooting. During my 
travels in that land I have had with dog and gun some splendid 
days — days which afford keen pleasure to look back upon. 
My aspirations in the matter of shooting never extended 
beyond the Pheasants, though at odd times I have shot a few 
River Deer, Muntjac, and, of course. Hares. But my extensive 
and prolonged journeys in the more mountainous parts of 
China have afforded me great opportunities of gaining a know- 
ledge of the game-fauna of Western China. 

During the years 1907-09, the expedition under my 
charge paid particular attention to the fauna, and amassed 
a collection of some 3135 birds, skins of 370 mammals, and 
specimens of various reptiles and fishes. My associate on 
this particular expedition, Mr. Walter R. Zappey, had especial 
charge of the collecting work in this department, and it 
speaks volumes for his enthusiasm, untiring energy, and 
skill that in so short a time he succeeded in making such 
a magnificent collection. The specimens he obtained are, 
through the munificence of John E. Thayer, Esq., Lancaster, 
Mass., U.S.A., preserved in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard College. The entire collection has been 
worked up by various specialists, and the results published 
in the Memoirs (vol. xl. No. 4, August 1912) of that 

This expedition gave me facilities for acquiring an intimate 

acquaintance with the fauna of Western China, and enables me 



to submit to readers much first-hand information relative to 
this subject. 

Mr. OHver G. Ready in his Life and Sport in China, and Mr. 
H. T. Wade in his With Boat and Gun in the Yangtsze Valley, 
with other writers, have given accounts of the game-fauna 
found in the more accessible parts of eastern China, but I am 
unacquainted with any work giving a general, descriptive 
account of the game animals and birds of the mountainous 
parts of central and Western China. In The Middle Kingdom, 
by S. Wells Williams, a brief notice of the fauna of China is 
given, but this was written long ago, and is based largely upon 
Chinese evidence and hearsay, and in consequence cannot be 
regarded as either complete or accurate. Unfortunately in 
the new edition of this work, published in 1900, very little 
revision of the chapter dealing with the fauna was attempted, 
and not much new matter was added. 

Since the subject under discussion is a large and compre- 
hensive one, it is simplest, perhaps, to divide it into two dis- 
tinct parts, one dealing with the birds and the other with the 


There is a great variety of game birds and wild-fowl found 
all over China ; moreover, this land is the headquarters of the 
Pheasant family. This latter fact is alone sufficient to make 
China of particular interest to all sportsmen, even had she no 
other attraction to offer. A Chinese Pheasant, commonly 
called the " Chinese Ring-neck " {Phasianus torquatus in the 
widest sense), was, as the world of sport well knows, long ago 
introduced into Europe and crossed with the native bird. To- 
day practically all the Pheasants bred in England for 
purposes of sport have more or less of this Chinese blood in 
them. The Mongolian Pheasant (P. mongolicus), a hardier 
bird, with lighter plumage in the female and young birds, 
is now being commonly bred for shooting purposes. In the 
United States of America the same obtains, but to a much 
more limited extent. Other Chinese Pheasants such as the 
" Reeves," " Golden," " Amherst," " Tragopan," etc., have 


been introduced, but have not been so readily acclimatized, 
and are comparatively seldom seen outside the aviary. 

The country of western Hupeh, of which the city of Ichang 
maybe regarded as the " Gate," constitutes a natural boundary 
for members of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. The flora 
and fauna found east of this region are, generally speaking, 
totally different to that found to the westward. The explana- 
tion is to be found in the character of the country. At Ichang 
commence the series of mountain ranges which, rising higher 
westward, finally culminate in the mighty snowclad ranges 
of the Chino-Thibetan borderland. Enclosed within this 
mountain-system is the Red Basin of Szechuan which is de- 
scribed in Vol. I, Chapter VI. This highly cultivated Basin 
again constitutes a barrier, and very few of the game birds or 
animals are common to both its eastern and western boundaries. 
East of Ichang for looo miles to the coast lay the vast alluvial 
plains and flats of the Yangtsze Valley. Here and there 
mountain ranges crop out like islands in the ocean, and so long 
have these elevations been isolated that they support in the 
main a peculiar flora and fauna. The surprisingly restricted 
range of the component species is one of the most interesting 
facts in Chinese natural history. 

Of true Pheasants [Phasianus) some six species occur in 
the region with which this work is concerned. Each of these 
species occupies its own particular geographical area. But 
it must be admitted that the modern tendency of systematic 
ornithologists to split up species into subspecies and varieties 
based on very slight variations renders the subject complicated 
and difficult. Indeed to such an extent is subdivision carried 
that one is sometimes inclined to think the actual differences 
exist on paper only. 

The low foot-hills, which commence some 30 miles east of 
Ichang, constitute the western limit of the common Ring- 
neck Pheasant of middle eastern China and the Yangtsze 
VaUey in particular (P. torquatus, var. kiangsuensis) . It 
is likewise the eastern boundary of a Pheasant in which the 
ring is usually quite absent (P. holder eri). The " Ring-neck " 
is essentially a bird of the plains, whilst the other is a mountain 
bird, adapted to more austere conditions of life. 


The bird of the plains is almost semi-aquatic in its habits, 
breeding in swamps and places more generally associated 
with waterfowl than pheasants. In the reed-bed region 
bordering the Tungting Lake I have, on several occasions, 
enjoyed good shooting, and it was always in the wet marshy 
places that the birds were most plentiful. Winter Snipe are 
common in this same region, and a right and left Pheasant and 
Snipe is commonly obtainable. On my first shooting trip in 
the reed-bed region I was ignorant of the aquatic habits of this 
Pheasant, and a friend and I worked all the dry, likely-looking 
places for the best part of a day with most discouraging 
results, until we accidentally plunged into a swampy region 
and found the birds. Water, food, and cover are everywhere 
the three essentials for pheasants of all kinds, but this bird of 
the plains seems to have a stronger predilection for the first- 
named than does any other species. The probable explanation 
is that in the marshes it enjoys greater protection from enemies, 
both two and four footed, than in the dry, open, and highly 
cultivated plains. 

In times past some extraordinary bags of this Pheasant 
have been made, and records of such are given in Mr. Wade's 
book. The bird is still quite common in the Yangtsze Valley, 
but natives, shooting for the market supply of the various 
treaty-ports, and especially that of Shanghai, have cleared 
many of the best districts known to foreigners. Phenomenal 
bags are no longer obtainable, and each year the foreign sports- 
man has to go farther afield if he wishes to enjoy good shooting. 

The cunning of the " Ring-neck " is proverbial, and the bird 
is so well known that description is unnecessary. The white 
ring round the neck and the white eyebrows are constant 
features that distinguish this bird from other species. The 
average measurement of the male is 32 to 34 inches tip to tip. 

The common Pheasant of the mountains of central China 
(P. holder eri) is about the same size as the " Ring-neck." 
The head and neck black with bluish and green reflec- 
tions, occasionally with a more or less complete white neck- 
ring ; breast purplish, abdomen black ; sides dull yellow, each 
feather having a black spot near the tip ; upper back dull 
yellowish, feathers notched and margined narrowly with 


black ; lower back bluish-slate, tail broadly barred, sides of 
upper tail-coverts light chestnut ; length about 32 to 34 inches 
tip to tip. The more broadly-barred tail-feathers, absence 
of white eyebrows, and the usual absence of the white neck- 
ring distinguish this bird from the common " Ring-neck." 

If the Pheasant of the plains is notoriously cunning, his 
confrere of the mountains is equally so, and the nature of his 
haunts aids him considerably in escaping his enemies. A 
common habit when hunted is for him to work his way quickly 
to the top of a steep hill and take wing on the crest. A study 
of his habits is necessary before much success attends one's 
efforts at shooting this Pheasant. The haunt of this mountain 
bird is the woods, copses, and scrub-clad mountain-sides, but 
he is seldom found in quantity other than in close proximity to 
cultivation. Just how far west this bird ranges I do not 
know, but he has not yet been authentically recorded west of 
the eastern limits of the Red Basin. His headquarters is 
undoubtedly western Hupeh and southern Shensi. His 
altitudinal range in this region is only limited by cultivation. 
In the mountains a favourite food of this bird is the fruit of 
many Rosaceous shrubs, particularly that of Cotoneaster. 
Scrub Oak retaining its warm brown foliage through the winter 
is general throughout this region, and is in winter a favourite 
haunt of this bird. In heavy snow he seeks the forest, 
especially that composed of evergreen trees. 

This Pheasant is strong on the wing and capable of carrying 
away a lot of shot. Much of the shooting in mountainous 
country is snap-shooting, and one's powder should " hit hard" 
or the bird is round the corner out of sight, and probably lost. 
Shooting this mountain bird is much finer sport than that 
afforded by the plains species. Every bird secured in the 
mountains is earned, and this combined with the bracing air 
gives additional zest and pleasure to the sport. I have spent 
some very pleasant days after this bird, and though I have 
never made a big bag I have enjoyed some enviable sport. 

Around Ichang, where this Pheasant occurs in sparse 
and ever-decreasing numbers, the hills are covered with a 
"Spear grass" {Heteropogon contortus), called " Hung-tsao " 
by the Chinese. The seeds of this annoying grass are barbed, 


and they drill their way through clothing deep into the flesh, 
from whence they are not readily extracted. Their power of 
penetration is truly marvellous. Ordinary cloth, such as 
serge, flannel, and khaki, is useless against them — they will 
even penetrate through the leather tongue of a shooting boot ! 
Stout duck and drill, starched and glazed, are the only kinds 
of woven material that will resist them, and then only as long 
as the material remains dry. In this spear-grass country only 
smooth-haired dogs are useful and capable of facing the 
cover. In the more mountainous country, three or four days 
removed from the river, the most useful kind of dog to cover 
the country is probably the Spaniel. 

In the mountains of south-western Szechuan west of the 
Min River Valley and as far north as lat. 31° N. the common 
Pheasant is Anderson's [Phasianus elegans). This lovely bird 
differs from Holderer's Pheasant in having a dark green 
instead of purple breast and terra-cotta instead of dull yellow 
sides ; the rump more pronounced slaty-grey with green 
reflections ; the tail is shorter, and the bird, which averages 
29 to 30 inches tip to tip, is smaller in all its parts. The 
average weight of full-grown cocks is 2^- lbs. An imaginary 
line connecting Kuan Hsien and Tachienlu roughly marks 
its northern range ; southwards it extends through western 
Yunnan to the borders of Burmah. Its altitudinal range is 
from 2500 feet up to 10,000 feet, or even higher where cultiva- 
tion obtains. Around Tachienlu, at alt. 8000 to 9500 feet, 
this Pheasant is quite common, and I have here seen in mid- 
July little chicks only a few days old. Around Wa shan this 
bird is fairly common, but from all accounts it is much more 
abundant in Yunnan. The habitat of this Pheasant is similar 
to that of Holderer's kind, and it affords similar sport. 

Around Srmgpan, in the north-west corner of Szechuan, 
occurs in quantity a Pheasant which closely resembles 
Anderson's, but is even smaller and rather different in colour. 
It may be a local form of this species. The predominant colour 
is a rich dark coppery bronze with dark green chest and breast, 
some feathers of the wing and rump are slate coloured ; head and 
neck very dark purplish-green, shading to black on the throat ; 
length, 28 to 30 inches, tip to tip ; average weight, 2| lbs. 


This Pheasant ranges up to the Hmits of cultivation {circa 
11,500 feet), and is partial to brush-clad mountain-slopes 
bordering the fields of wheat and barley, the staple crops in 
this region. He descends the Upper Min Valley to about 
6000 feet altitude, but is essentially a bird of high elevations. 

At Sungpan I have shot this bird inside the city walls, and 
so abundant are they there that the Chinese declare that in 
winter they can be walked up to and killed with a stick ! 
Though this is probably an exaggeration the bird is undoubtedly 
very common, and the broad valleys and fairly easy slopes 
render the sport enjoyed after this Pheasant less fatiguing 
than that after any other of the mountain species. In 
the brushwood haunts of this bird, however, the Sallowthorn 
[Hippophae salicifolia) abounds, and one's shins and knees 
need good protection against the stout thorns which beset 
this shrub. The true Phasianus elegans and this variety (or 
species, as the case may be) are hardy birds, and their intro- 
duction into the west is much to be desired. In North America 
in particular they would probably prove of greater value than 
the varieties of the more tender P. torquatus. They are as 
strong on the wing as any kind of Pheasant, lie close and 
afford the finest of shooting. 

On the mountains bordering the Red Basin from Wench'uan 
Hsien northward to the borders of Kansu, from 4000 to 
9000 feet elevation, the Pheasant commonly met with is 
P. berezovskyi. In this bird the crown of the head is purplish ; 
neck, dark lustrous green; chest and breast, rich coppery-bronze, 
with the breast-feathers narrowly margined with black ; flanks, 
dark ; rump, slaty-blue ; total length about 36 to 38 inches. 

On one occasion, in 1908, two companions and myself 
enjoyed some excellent sport after this bird in the mountains 
to the immediate east of Mao Chou. Had we been out for a 
bag we could easily have secured a hundred brace in the four 
days we spent in this region. One of the cocks shot measured 
over 40 inches, tip to tip. Scrub-clad mountain-slopes near 
cultivation is the home of this handsome Pheasant. 

Some confusion has arisen in the matter of identification 
of the Ringless Pheasant {P. decollatus) through I'Abb^ David 
and others referring the Ringless Pheasants found in Shensi 


and western Szechuan to this species. As far as I can deter- 
mine this Pheasant is restricted to the low hilly country 
bordering the Yangtsze River from Wan Hsien westward to 
Sui Fu. It is also found in the valley of the Min River around 
Kiating Fu, which district may be regarded as its northern 
limits. It ranges from the river-level up to about 3000 feet 
altitude, and possibly to 1000 feet higher south of Chungking, 
which is about the regional optimum of the species. Scrub- 
clad hillsides and thin woods bordering cultivation in the 
Yangtsze region of the Red Basin is the home of this Pheasant. 

The species was founded by Swinhoe [Proceedings, Zoological 
Society, London, 1870, p. 135), on a bird purchased by his Boy 
in the market at Chungking on 13th May 1869 ; a Pheasant 
without a ring was a surprising novelty to Swinhoe, and he 
could scarcely credit the story of a Ring-neck bird being un- 
known around Chungking. 

This Pheasant is characterized by having the crown deep 
brown, with the feathers margined with bronzed reflections ; 
no white superciliary markings and no indication of white 
neck-ring ; bare red patch on face very small ; entire neck 
duck-green with purple reflections ; feathers of upper back 
have the centres black with a narrow, medium, yellowish streak 
and broad chestnut cross mark ; breast, chestnut-brown, with 
broad black margins reflecting green ; flanks, buff ; tail, 
broadly barred with black ; total length, 36 to 39 inches. 

It is distinguished from P. holdereri by its differently coloured 
breast, longer tail, and different markings on the feathers of 
the upper back. Its closest ally is P. berezovskyi [ante, p. 112). 
P. decollatiis and its allied species form a well-marked group, 
in which the greenish colour of the neck-feathers stops abruptly 
at apex of the breast, forming a sharp line of demarcation in 
colour. In P. elegans and allied species, which constitute 
another well-marked group, no such line of demarcation is 
found, the colour of the lower neck and chest merging gradually 
into that of the breast. 

Strauch's Pheasant [Phasianus strauchi) occurs in Kansu 
province and on the mountains bordering the Amdo region, 
frequenting woody places up to 10,000 feet altitude, and may 
possibly extend into north-western Szechuan. It is described 

VOL. II. — 8 


as near P. decollatus, and is distinguished by the chest- and 
breast-feathers being narrowly margined with black ; flanks, 
darker ; mantle, fiery orange with narrow wedge-like apical 
streaks of blackish green, broad scapulars margined with dark 
maroon-red ; tail, more rufous-grey. The chest- and breast- 
feathers are bright, fiery chestnut-red, edged with purplish 
green ; flanks, bright chestnut-red, tipped with purplish green ; 
middle of breast and sides of belly dark green. 

It is possible that the Pheasant found in the neighbourhood 
of Sungpan Ting should be referred to this species. Unfortu- 
nately my notes, made in 1904, are too incomplete to hazard 
an opinion either way. My impression, however, is that this 
Sungpan bird belongs to the elegans rather than the decollatus 

Apart from species of the genus Phasianus, a large number 
of birds commonly spoken of as Pheasants in the broad sense 
of the term are found in the country with which we are con- 
cerned, and I now propose to deal with them in detail. 

In the wooded country north and south of Ichang, between 
2000 and 5000 feet altitude, the Reeves Pheasant [Syrmaticus 
reevesi) is abundant. This region is the real home of this 
magnificent bird. Westward he ranges as far as Lu Chou, 
but I never saw or heard of one west of the Min River ; north- 
wards his range extends into southern Shensi. Every year 
numbers of badly prepared skins are brought into Ichang for 
sale. In Chungking dead birds are frequently to be seen on 
sale in the market. The flesh is very white and firm, but 
scarcely equal in flavour to that of a common Pheasant. 

Marco Polo makes mention of this remarkable bird, and 
specimens were secured by Mr. Thomas Beale in Canton during 
1808. Mr. John Reeves sent specimens to England in 1832. 
Nevertheless, it is only comparatively recently that its habitat 
has become known, and very few have seen the bird truly wild, 
and fewer still have shot it. Though I have seen many 
hundreds in their native woods, I have not shot more than a 
dozen. My largest specimen measured 6 feet and | an inch. 
A bird shot by my associate, Mr. Zappey, in January 1909, 
and now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
College, measures 6 feet 9I inches, tip to tip. The largest 



specimen I ever saw was shot near Nanto, at the head of the 
Ichang Gorge ; it measured 7 feet 2 inches, tip to tip ! 

The Reeves Pheasant is now so well known in aviaries that 
the following description is scarcely necessary : Crown and 
throat, white ; upper-parts, dull yellow ; feathers, narrowly 
margined with black, giving a scaly appearance ; breast, spotted 
and barred with black, white, and chestnut, on the sides the 
chestnut colouring shading into deep rufous-red; abdomen, 
black; tail, grey, barred with black to tip. The female averages 
about 32 inches, tip to tip, and is a very pretty bird ; the entire 
plumage is mottled, black, white, and brown, with the outer 
tail-feathers barred deep rufous-red. 

Rocky, well-wooded country, where the undergrowth is 
not dense and in the neighbourhood of cultivation throughout 
the altitudes mentioned above, is the haunt of this bird. He 
has a partiality for oak woods and is very fond of acorns ; the 
pulpy fruit of various Rosaceous plants, especially of Coton- 
easter, is another favourite food. 

The Reeves Pheasant is a wary bird and a great runner, 
quickly zigzagging to the mountain-top, from whence he 
prefers to take wing. He is very quick on the wing, shooting 
up thi'ough the trees at a sharp angle and then sailing from one 
ridge across to another. It is a fine sight to see this bird on a 
sunny day sailing across from ridge to ridge ; the great length 
detracts from the spread of the wings and he resembles some 
strange Chinese kite floating high up across the valleys. A 
strong bird, he flies with little apparent effort, and always puts 
at least one ridge between himself and the foe that caused his 
flight, and usually alights on a tree. The female when startled 
behaves similar to the male in running to the mountain-top. 
She then takes flight, making a curious chickering noise, and 
quickly dodges behind a tree-trunk. A common practice 
with the female bird is to alight on the upper branches of some 
convenient tree before essaying a long flight. The curious, 
weak, twittering call is more like that of some small animal 
than that of a bird. 

The Chinese name for the Reeves Pheasant is " Ch'u che " 
(Arrow Chicken). The tail-feathers are largely used in Chinese 
theatricals. L'Abbe David suggests that this bird may be the 


original of the mythical Chinese Fung Hwang (Phoenix bird). 
To my mind this is extremely probable, but Williams in The 
Middle Kingdom considers the Argus Pheasant, found in Ton- 
king and southern Yunnan, the origin of this fabulous bird. 


This weU-known bird {Chrysohphus pictus) is abundant 
on the mountains of western Hupeh and eastern Szechuan, 
where it has much the same geographical range as the " Reeves." 
West of the Red Basin its place is taken by its congener, the 
Amherst Pheasant. Though so common, and in spring and 
early summer heard calling on all sides, the Golden Pheasant 
is rarely seen. Large numbers are entrapped alive by the 
Chinese and sold as pets. Few foreigners have had the luck 
to shoot this bird on his native heath. I had one chance only 
in my travels and that a very easy one, which I missed with both 
barrels. This bird frequents dense woods, where Evergreen 
Oak, Holly, Rhododendron, and other broad-leaved evergreen 
trees occur ; woods of Pine and Oak scrub are also a favourite 
haunt, and t strong partiality to rocky ground is shown. It 
ranges from z<ooo to 8000 feet altitude, but is commonest be- 
tween altitudes of 3000 to 5000 feet. This Pheasant feeds largely 
on berries, but is not averse to small acorns. He is a timid and 
crafty bird and seldom strays far from thick cover. He is also 
a great runner, only taking wing when hard pressed ; the flight 
is always low, fairly straight, and of short duration into the 
nearest thicket. 

In the adult male the crest and rump are golden yellow ; 
feathers forming the cape, deep orange margined with black ; 
breast, flanks, and upper tail coverts tipped with scarlet ; tail, 
dark brown, barred with black ; average length about 42 inches, 
tip to tip. The young males resemble the females more than 
the adult males, having the head and rump rufous-chestnut ; 
rest of the body brownish and barred. The female is con- 
siderably smaller than the male, measuring 24 to 26 inches, 
tip to tip ; the colour of the plumage is uniform buff-brown, 

The Chinese designate this bird " Chin che " (Uterally, 


Golden Chicken). To write it savours of vandalism, but 
this bird is really excellent eating, though there is little of 
him. Two or three guns properly posted, with some trained 
beaters or Sussex spaniels, might enjoy good sport after Golden 
Pheasants in the regions given above, but the work would 
involve plenty of hard climbing. 

LADY Amherst's pheasant 

West of the Red Basin this Pheasant {Chrysolophus 
amherstice) takes the place of the Golden Pheasant. The 
exact boundary line between the two species is difficult to 
determine, but I have not seen or heard of them being found 
in the same region. On Wa shan and Mount Omei and the 
jungle-clad regions west of these high mountains, the Amherst 
is abundant. North of Kuan Hsien he crosses the Min River, 
but the eastern limit everywhere is the western edge of the 
Red Basin ; north of lat. 32° he quickly disappears. 

The habits and haunts of this bird are similar to those of 
the Golden Pheasant ; the altitudinal range is from 3000 feet to 
about 10,000 feet in the south-west, and 8000 feet in the north- 
west of Szechuan. In these regions dwarf-growing Bamboos 
are a feature of the vegetation, forming absolutely impenetrable 
jungle. Such is the natural home of this bird, and though in 
season he is heard calling on all sides he is seldom actually 
seen. The Amherst is a very noisy bird, with a call very like 
the Golden. In the dense thickets it is of course impossible 
to shoot this bird, but in the early morning and late afternoon 
he is to be found in cultivated areas bordering the thickets, 
and occasionally a lucky snap-shot rewards the sportsman. 
The flight is similar to that of the Golden, and the natives 
entrap him in the same way. In the mountains bordering the 
Chiench'ang Valley in south-west Szechuan this bird must be 
very abundant, for the tail-feathers and cape are common 
articles of export from this region. They are used in Chinese 
theatricals in the same way as the tail-feathers of the Reeves 
Pheasant. The cape is also used in west Szechuan to adorn 
the caps of favourite male children. 

In the adult male the crown, upper back, and breast are 


resplendent dark green ; rump, ochre-yellow with scarlet 
feathers in the upper coverts and on the lower rump ; from the 
back of the crown projects a crest composed of a few long 
crimson feathers ; the cape is white, margined with black, with 
outer feathers deep brown, barred with black ; tail white, 
speckled and barred with black ; length about 44 inches, tip 
to tip. The female is considerably smaller than the male 
and shows no sign of the cape ; the crown and hind neck plumage 
is washed with greyish ; back, buff-brown, barred ; chest, buff, 
with under-parts lighter. 

The Amherst has long been known in Occidental aviaries, 
and some interesting crosses between it and the Golden have 
been made. To my mind this bird is the most beautiful of 
all the Pheasants found in Western China. A colloquial name 
around Wa shan for it is " Kwong-kwong che." The shooting 
of this Pheasant, save by chance, is very difficult, but there 
are places where, by adopting the methods advocated for 
securing the Golden Pheasant, a few birds at any rate would 
reward an ardent sportsman. As a table-bird the Amherst 
is scarcely worthy of consideration ; the flesh is coarse and 
without flavour. 


A common bird in the upland thickets between 8000 to 
12,000 feet elevation throughout western Szechuan is Ithagenes 
geoffroyi. Aroimd Tachienlu it is abundant, especially in 
thickets of Evergreen Oak and Juniper. This bird lies very 
close and is usually found in small coveys. When pressed by 
the dog it flies up into the taller bushes, making at the same 
time considerable noise, half fear, half scold in tone. 

In the male the crest is dark grey ; feathers of the back 
and chest lance-shaped, grey, each with a fine longitudinal white 
stripe ; breast and sides, light green ; under tail- coverts and 
few of upper coverts, crimson ; tail-feathers, light grey, edged 
with crimson ; spurs, i to 4 on each leg ; length, about 
18 inches, tip to tip. Female very similar to male ; length, 
i6|- inches, tip to tip. 

On Wa shan Mr. Zappey shot specimens of what proved 


to be a species new to science, and Messrs. Thayer and Bangs 
have done me the honour of naming it /. wilsoni. This new 
Blood Pheasant differs in its smaller size, measuring only 
14I- inches, tip to tip. The wing is very much shorter, and 
the whole bird is only about two-thirds the size of /. geo-ffroyi. 
The colour of the plumage is similar in both species. 

In a region considerably to the west of Tachienlu (Yerkalo, 
on the Upper Mekong River), the Himalayan species (/. cruentus) 
has been reported, but I have no personal knowledge of this bird. 

The colloquial name throughout west Szechuan for the 
Blood Pheasants is " Song che," which may be interpreted 
" Chicken of the thickets." This bird feeds on Juniper berries 
and buds of Larch amongst other things, and the whole flesh 
is permeated with a decided flavour of resin, rendering it unfit 
for the table. 


Three distinct species of Pucrasia are now known from 
China, two of them occurring in the regions with which we 
are concerned. In western Szechuan, ranging (at least) from 
Wa shan in the south to Tachienlu in the west, and north- 
wards to Kansu, Pucrasia xanthospila is met with. This is 
essentially a woodland bird, frequenting the forests of Spruce 
and Silver Fir between 8000 feet and the tree-limit (11,000 
to 13,000 feet, circa), where the undergrowth is mostly 
composed of Rhododendrons. It is particularly partial to 
places where fir needles cover the outcropping rocks. In 
such places in the forests these birds are frequently to be seen 
walking silently about with the dignified deliberateness of a 
barnyard fowl. They are silent (almost uncannily so) in their 
movements ; they skulk about amongst the timber, and refuse 
to take wing unless very hard pressed by a dog, when they fly 
up into the branches of the nearest tree. The males measure 
22 to 23 inches, tip to tip ; ground colour of sides and flanks, 
grey; nape, rufous-yellow ; basal parts of outer tail-feathers, grey. 
The common name of this pheasant is " Sung che," literally, 
" Pine Chicken." {Sung, strictly speaking, denotes the genus 
Pinus only, but in Western China the term has a wider applica- 


tion, and includes Spruce, Silver Fir, and Larch, as well as Pines 
proper.) This species of Pucras Pheasant has a very wide dis- 
tribution, extending through the mountain ranges of northern 
China to eastern Manchuria. It is everywhere esteemed as 
a table-bird, the flesh having a particularly delicate flavour. 

A variety of this species was obtained in the Shensi pro- 
vince by I'Abbe David and named P. xanthospila, var. ruficolUs. 
This is distinguished in having the side of the neck very deep 
red ; lateral white spot little developed and surrounded on 
all sides by the metallic black ; median chestnut band less 
extended on the beUy than in the type ; black tints more 
developed on the back and wings. Very probably this should 
rank as a distinct species, but more material is wanted to 
determine this point. 

In western Hupeh a new species has recently been reported 
and named Pucrasia styani. This bird measures about i8 
inches, tip to tip ; the middle of the chest, breast, and under- 
parts are streaked like the sides, and there is no trace of the 
uniform chestnut band down the middle of the under-parts, 
which is characteristic of all the other species. The female is 
ahke in all the species of Pucrasia, being similar in size and 
appearance to a common hen pheasant with a short tail and 
red legs. Styan's Pucrasia occurs in the vicinity of the 
Yangtsze River from near Kui Chou in Hupeh, westward 
(at least) as far as Yunyang Hsien, in eastern Szechuan. I 
flushed a small covey near Kui Chou in February 1901 and 
secured a female. The birds rose after the manner of ordinary 
hen pheasants, but scattered in several directions. Near 
Yunyang Hsien I saw several others in more open rocky ground. 
Stony, brush, and Pine-clad hillsides of no great altitude appear 
to be the home of this rare and interesting bird. As to how 
far it ranges to the north and south of the Yangstze River 
is not known. 


This strikingly handsome bird {Tragopan temmincki) is 
fairly common in parts of western Hupeh and western 
Szechuan between 4000 and 9000 feet altitude, frequenting 


woods and shrub-clad country. It prefers steep mountain- 
slopes, covered with arborescent vegetation, and in summer, 
when the foliage is on the trees, is most difhcult to find. In 
winter it may occasionally be surprised, early in the morning 
and evening, near the margins of cultivation and close to thick 
cover. Like all the woodland pheasants these birds will only 
take wing when hard pressed and usually afford only a chance 
snap-shot. A heavy bird, the Tragopan flies at almost the 
speed of an ordinary pheasant, and always makes straight for 
dense brush or timber. The Chinese entrap them alive in the 
same way as they do the Golden and Amherst Pheasants. 
They are esteemed highly as pets and they sell for 3 to 5 ounces 
of silver each — a high price in these regions. The markings on 
the wattle are supposed to resemble the Chinese character for 
longevity, hence the common name, " T'so che." They are re- 
garded as birds of good omen, bringing good-luck and long life to 
their fortunate owners. Every year numbers are brought down 
to Ichang for sale, where they find ready purchasers. In the 
mountains they apparently adapt themselves to captivity, but 
in the Yangtsze Valley proper the climate is too hot for them. 

In the male the plumage of the upper-parts of the body 
generally is dark brownish-crimson, spotted with small whitish 
spots ; breast, indian-red, blotched with grey ; crown, rufous- 
crimson ; ears and lower eye-patch, indigo blue ; wattle, indigo 
blue with flesh-coloured markings ; tail, short and broad ; 
total length, 24 to 26 inches. The female has no wattle and 
the general colour of the plumage is brownish-buff, barred 
and spotted with darker colours ; total length, 18 to 20 inches. 

The short tail and heavy body make the birds appear 
heavy in flight, and shooting them would be moderately easy 
did one but get fair chances. The Tragopan is a good table- 
bird, but to shoot them for this|purpose alone would be gross 
vandalism. They feed on grain and berries, and are especially 
fond of the fruits of Cotoneaster and allied shrubs and 
of maize. South of Ichang this bird is much rarer than in the 
mountains north-west of this town and in western Szechuan. 

The other species of Tragopan {T. cahoti) found in China 
is confined to the eastern part of the country, being found 
in the provinces of Fokien and Kiangsu. 



Of the three species of these birds (Crossoptilun) known 
from China two are found in the far west. The only one I 
have seen and shot is the " White " or " Thibetan " species 
(C. tihetanum), which is abundant in the neighbourhood of 
Tachienlu. This bird frequents the upper timber-belt between 
9500 and 13,000 feet, being commonly met with in large flocks, 
more especially in autumn, when it is probable that several 
coveys join forces. West of Tachienlu on the highway to 
Batang it is frequently to be seen strolling about in open grassy 
places and across the roadway. The walk is suggestive of a 
fine farmyard rooster, and with its broad, slightly raised, 
arching, plume-like tail the bird looks very stately. It is a 
great runner and always makes straight up the mountain- 
side into thick cover. When flushed it takes wing with the 
speed of a bullet, and with its heavy body makes a great noise 
on rising. The flight is of short duration and only attempted 
as a last resource ; generally the bird alights on trees. 

The male has the crown black ; wing primaries, blue- 
black ; secondaries, blue-black shading into ashy-grey ; upper 
wing-coverts, grey ; middle tail-feathers, ashy-grey shading 
to iridescent blue-black with green reflections ; rump and 
abdomen clear white, rest of the plumage creamy white ; feet, 
coral-red, and the legs armed with long murderous-looking 
spurs ; total length, 38 to 40 inches. The female is similar to 
the male, with a total length of 34 to 35 inches. 

Hunting this strong-legged, handsome bird is most " wind- 
ing " and fatiguing sport. A favourite food is wild onions, and 
the strong flavour of this esculent permeates the flesh, which is 
dark-coloured and coarse and of little value for the table. The 
average weight of adult male is about 8 to 9 lbs. 

This Crossoptilun ranges throughout the sub-alpine regions, 
bordering the timber-line from south-west of Tachienlu to the 
neighbourhood of Sungpan Ting and is one of the commonest 
birds found in this region. The vernacular Chinese name for 
this bird is " Ma che " ; a Thibetan name is " Shar har." How 
far to the south and west of the regions indicated this bird 
ranges I have no knowledge. 

1 2 


? 341 IN. 


The eggs are described by Pratt as being " light olive-dun 
colour." 1 Brooding commences about beginning of June and 
possibly earlier. By the end of July the " chicks " are of good 
size and strong on the wing. 

According to I'Abbe David, ^ the " Blue-Eared Pheasant " 
{Crossoptilun auritum) occurs in the north-west of Szechuan 
and extends northwards to the Kokonor region, but is every- 
where rare. He also says it is called " Ma che " (Ma ky), a 
name cited above as applied to the Thibetan-Eared Pheasant. 
I have no personal knowledge of this Blue Crossoptilun, but in 
the neighbourhood of Sungpan I was informed that " Ma che " 
occur, but are rare. I had presumed the white kind was meant, 
since the vernacular name was the same, but very probably I 
was mistaken. 

In size and shape the Blue Crossoptilun is described as being 
similar to the Thibetan species ; the ear-tufts are longer ; body, 
slate-blue ; tail-coverts passing from slate-blue to metallic 
black, lateral tail-coverts pure white in basal half ; under-throat, 
white; eye-patch, blood-red ; feet, coral-red. Female similar in 
plumage to male, but slightly smaller in size. 

The specimens David sent to Europe he secured in Peking 
and I can find no record of any specimens having been shot 
in north-west Szechuan by a foreigner. Future travellers 
will do well to investigate this bird more fully, for there is a 
possibility of the species being distinct. 


Scattered through the same region as the White Crossoptilun, 
only at greater altitudes, occurs the magnificent " Monal 
Pheasant" [Lophophonis Ihuysi), at once the most gorgeous and 
rarest of all game-birds found in these regions. Both David 
and Pratt comment on the rarity of this bu'd, and my ex- 
perience is in accord with theirs. The King of Chiala detailed 
hunters specially for the purpose of securing specimens for 
Zappey, but no birds could be found. I was informed this bird 
was comparatively common east-north-east of Sungpan Ting, 

^ The Snows of Thibet, p. 202. 

^ Les Oiseaux de la Chine, i. p. 406. 


in rocky places between 13,500 and 14,500 feet altitude, 
but I never met with one in that region. The only specimen 
that came under my observation was strolling about the margin 
of rocky scrub immediately above a wood of alpine Larch 
on the Ta-p'ao shan (between Romi Chango and Tachienlu), 
alt. 12,000 feet. In this particular locality I was told the 
Monal was fairly plentiful, but I doubt it. Hunters are ever 
on the look out to shoot and trap this bird, and the species is 
undoubtedly threatened with extinction. 

In the adult male the top and side of head is metallic green 
with violet reflections ; eye-patch naked, very bright blue ; 
occipital tuft of long feathers, purple with metallic reflections ; 
back of neck and upper part of back intense golden-copper 
colour ; upper side of wings with bright blue and green reflec- 
tions, washed with golden green on the shoulders ; lower part of 
back and rump white, with some angular blue spots on side of 
upper tail-feathers, the longest of which are steel-blue ; under- 
parts of body black, glossed with green ; tail rather broad and 
rounded ; coverts, black and green with white spots ; legs 
feathered to the spur, which is stout ; below spur the legs and also 
the feet are greenish-brown ; total length, 36 to 40 inches. The 
females are brown, mixed with blackish and grey. The males 
assume adult plumage the second year ; in their first year's 
plumage they are similar to the female birds. 

The magnificent bird has several local names. Around 
Tachienlu it is commonly caUed " Hwa-t'an che " (" Oak 
Charcoal Chicken "), or " Hoa-t'an che " (" Burning Charcoal 
Chicken "), both names having reference to the colour of the 
upper-part of the back and neck, which resembles the intense 
glow of a charcoal fire in full blast. A Thibetan name, which 
is used around Tachienlu and Sungpan Ting, is " Koa-loong." 
This name has reference to, and indeed simulates, the call of 
these birds, which is clear and distinctly quadrisyllable. This 
caU is usually heard in the early morning, but in wet weather 
it may be heard at any time of the day. 

A favourite food of this bird is said to be the bulbs of various 
species of Fritillaria. The bulbs, known as " Pei-mu," are 
highly valued as medicine by the Chinese, and many men earn 
their livelihood collecting these and other medicinal herbs in 



the alpine regions of Western China. According to I'Abbe 
David, a local name for the Monal is " Pei-mu che " (Pae-mou 
ky) , in consequence of its feeding on these bulbs. Around Tach- 
ienlu this name is applied to a Pheasant Grouse described below, 
but it is highly probable that both birds are sometimes known 
by the same vernacular name. Mr. A. E. Pratt (loc. cit. p. 203) 
reports that he succeeded in introducing a single specimen of the 
magnificent Monal to England and handing it over to the 
Zoological Society, together with several Crossoptilun Hbetanum. 
In the province of Kweichou the mountains do not approach 
the snow-line, and in consequence it seems highly probably that 
I'Abbe David (loc. cit. p. 404) was wrongly informed as to this 
bird being found there. 


This fine bird [Tetraophasis szechenyi), commonly called 
" Pei-mu che " by hunters around Tachienlu, is a denizen of 
the alpine woodlands between 12,500 to 14,000 feet elevation. 
West of Tachienlu, towards Litang, and more especially on the 
slopes of the Rama-lal Pass, it is fairly common, but always in 
open timber near the upper limits of the forests. It takes wing 
with the characteristic grouse whirr and swings through the 
glades at a great speed. The plumage of the adult male is : 
wings brownish, feathers margined with whitish buff ; throat, 
chin, and forepart of the neck pale fawn colour ; breast, slate 
with triangular black spots ; rump, light grey ; tail, greyish- 
brown, tipped with broad band of white ; wattle side of head, 
orange-scarlet ; total length, i8Jto 19 inches. Female similar 
to male, but about half an inch shorter. This is a very heavy 
bird for its size and most excellent eating. Mr. Zappey, who 
shot quite a number, considers this the finest for the table of all 
gallinaceous birds found in Western China. 

In Mupin,a small principality a little to the east-north-east 
of Tachienlu, I'Abb^ David secured the type of this genus, 
Tetraophasis obscurus. This species is distinguished from that 
described above in having the chin, throat, and forepart of 
the neck dark chestnut colour. In size the two species are 
very similar. David says the local name is " Yang-ko che," 


which may be translated the " Chicken of the Western king- 
doms," signifying that it is pecuhar to the Chino-Thibetan 


This interesting bird {Tetrastes severtzovi) is fairly common 
throughout the Chino-Thibetan borderland, where it frequents 
the upper timber-belt, bordering the brush-clad moorlands. 
Alpine woods of Larch, such as occur on the Ta-p'ao shan, 
north of Tachienlu, is a favourite haunt of this bird. It is a 
plump, rather small bird, fairly easy to shoot, and of excellent 
flavour. In the male the upper-parts are brown, mottled 
with black ; throat, black ; under-parts, whitish-grey ; chest, 
mottled ; total length about 14I inches. Female similarly 
coloured to the male, but without any black on the throat ; 
total length, i2| inches. The dark, rich-brown general 
colouring, darker and more distinct markings on the breast 
and abdomen readily distinguish this bird from its near ally 
the " Hazel-hen " of northern Europe. 


This denizen of upper alpine moorlands is rather rare and 
very difficult to shoot, too difficult for me, in fact, and 
though I have seen several I never succeeded in bagging a 
specimen. At 14,000 to 16,000 one has very little breath to 
spare, and a strong bird which prefers running and hiding 
among rocks to flight has considerably the best of the contest. 
As known to me, this bird {Tetraogallus henrici) is solitary 
or in pairs, with a penchant for hiding amongst the boulders 
of old moraines. The plumage of the back is grey, finely 
vermiculated with pale buff; wing-coverts with large buff 
and pale chestnut spots ; crown, ashy-grey with chestnut and 
white markings on side of head ; throat, white ; chest, grey ; 
abdomen, dark grey, striped chestnut on the sides ; total length, 
20 to 22 inches. This bird is very solid, with a heavy, almost 
vulture-like, beak. 

The only place I have seen this bird in is the neighbourhood 





of Tachienlu, and it was here that Prince Henri d'Orleans 
secured the type-specimen. As far as I know no specimen 
of Snow-cock other than Prince Henri's has been collected 
in this region and sent to Western museums. L'Abbe David 
and others have stated that the Himalayan species {T. tihetanus) 
occurs in this same region, but no specimens have been taken. 
It is improbable that two species so closely allied inhabit the 
same locality. The principal difference is the grey chest of 
T. henrici, and white chest, divided from breast by a grey 
band, in T. tihetanus. Personally, I am of the opinion that 
the only Snow-cock found in the neighbourhood of Tachienlu 
and Mupin is T. henrici. 


Colloquially known as the Hsueh che (literally, " Snow 
Chicken"), this bird {Lerwa lerwa) is not uncommon in the 
alpine moorlands of the Chino-Thibetan borderland. I have 
met with it around Sungpan Ting and on the Pan-Ian shan, 
between Kuan Hsien and Monking Ting, at elevations of 
11,500 to 14,000 feet. Hereabouts it is found on open moor- 
lands amongst herbs and dwarf brush, always in small coveys 
of six to ten birds. They lie very close, and when they do 
take wing scatter in all directions. If flushed on the slopes of 
the mountains the birds fly down and round at great speed and 
are difficult to shoot. They make considerable noise when 
rising and never fly any great distance. Good sport can be 
enjoyed behind a well-trained dog, and the bird is very good 
eating. The plumage of the back is barred black with yellowish- 
grey and buff ; under-parts, chestnut with a few pale stripes ; 
beak and legs, coral-red ; total length about 14 inches. 


This dainty bird {Perdix hodgsonicB sifanica), which is 
about the size of the European Partridge, is common on 
scrub-clad mountains from Tachienlu to Sungpan Ting at 
elevations between 9000 and 14,000 feet. It is generally found 
two or four together, and in late August and September in 


small coveys of ten or twelve birds. They lie close, and when 
flushed scatter and fly low and straight down and around 
the mountain-sides at great speed. The plumage is brownish 
and barred all over, with a distinguishing chestnut collar : 
total length (male) about ii| inches ; (female) about io| inches. 
This bird affords similar sport to the Snow-partridge, and is 
also excellent eating. 


This bird [Bamhusicola thoracica) is very common in 
western Szechuan up to 2000 feet elevation, but I never met 
with it in the eastern part of the province nor in Hupeh. It 
is commonly found in clumps of Bamboo around houses, more 
rarely in dense scrub and margins of copses. A ditch over- 
grown with rank weeds and shrubs is its favourite haunt. It 
is usual to find coveys of ten to twelve birds ; they lie very close, 
and will not take wing until hard pressed by the dog. They 
skulk and run, and, when forced, rise in a " bunch " with much 
noise, and scatter in all directions. They do not travel far on 
the wing, and usually two or three merely fly up into the nearest 
bush ; it is seldom, too, that the whole covey takes flight, one 
or two stragglers generally skulk behind. The bird is swift 
on the wing, flying low and straight to the nearest Bamboo 
clump or thicket. In consequence of this and the fact of 
their usually being found near houses, the shooting is highly 
dangerous. It is always snap-shooting, and people are every- 
where around, so that the sport is tantalizing at best. 

This bird is a rather gross feeder, and might almost be 
termed a scavenger. The flesh is white, but often strong 
flavoured. When found some distance removed from houses 
where they have fattened on sweet potato, pulse, and grass 
seeds, they are reaUy good eating. Around Kiating this bird 
is very common. The throat and breast is bright chestnut 
with a grey crescent across the chest ; crown, grey ; back, 
greyish-olive with chestnut markings ; wings with pale 
greyish marking ; belly, buff ; sides spotted with very dark 
chestnut ; tail, dull chestnut with pale vermiculations ; total 
length, II to 12 inches. Female similar to male. 


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Though a quiet-coloured bird, the Bamboo-partridge is 
really very handsome, and the colours of its plumage harmonize 
together splendidly. The males are great fighters. The 
Chinese commonly keep them in cages as pets, and derive much 
amusement from their pugnacious habits. The common name 
of these birds is " Chu che " (Bamboo Chicken). 

Between the Ichang Gorge and the Niukan Gorge on the 
Yangtsze River Bamboo groves are a special feature. In these 
groves I have several times flushed an odd covey of Bamboo- 
partridge. This kind is smaller than the one described above, 
and is either a new species or B. fytchi, a species known to 
occur in western Yunnan. Unfortunately, our expedition did 
not secure any specimens, and I have no precise data. 


The common Woodcock [Scolopax rusticula) is found 
scattered all over Western China. Anywhere and everywhere 
it may be found, but never in any great quantity. From 
October to the end of April, Woodcock are " in," and an odd 
bird is almost sure to be sighted in a walk after Pheasant or 
Bamboo-partridge. I have met with this bird from river- 
level (Ichang 120 feet altitude) up to 7000 feet altitude in 
western Szechuan in a variety of places. A favourite haunt 
is the side of a ditch, where there is a little cover. In spring. 
Woodcock are commonly to be found in the beanfields (Broad 
Bean, Vicia Faha), especially if there are a few trees near by 
to afford greater shade. Near Ichang in April 1907 I shot 
five within an hour, in a patch of beans beneath Plum and Pear 
trees, with houses not 50 yards away. When found in these 
moist shady beanfields the birds are usually very fat. One of 
the five birds alluded to above turned the scale at 15 ounces, 
and was a male at that ! It is commonly supposed that the 
female is larger than the male, but after measuring and weighing 
many birds I can find no decided difference. When the feeding 
is good the sexes attain about equal weight. The largest bird 
I have shot was a male. 

As all who have given any attention to the matter know, 
Woodcock are to be found in the same spots year after year. 

VOL. II. — 9 


This is equally true in China as elsewhere. Though found with 
greater frequency in the vicinity of habitations where cultiva- 
tion obtains and food in consequence more abundant, Wood- 
cock are commonly met with on the mountains where little 
cultivation is carried on. When shooting east of Mao Chou 
in October 1908 at about 6000 feet elevation Woodcock were 
fairly abundant. I have also enjoyed good sport immediately 
outside of the city wall of Kiating Fu. The usual flight of a 
Woodcock is slow, rather erratic and owl-like, but when 
fairly roused there are few birds that fiy at greater speed. 
All its movements in rising and flighting are silent, almost 
uncannily so. 


This bird [Rostratula capensis) is more a Woodcock than a 
real Snipe, and is easily recognized by its curved bill. In 
plumage there is a vast difference between the young and adult 
birds. This difference is commonly attributed to sex, the better 
coloured birds being regarded as females. This is wrong. 
The adult birds are alike in both sexes. The primary quills 
of the wing are marked with buff-coloured, eye-like spots ; 
neck, deep chestnut shading to black on the breast ; outer- 
most of the inner secondaries, white, forming a conspicuous 
stripe ; tail, olive-grey with four or five buff spots on both webs 
of the feathers, aU of which are tipped with buff ; lower breast, 
white, this area passing on to the shoulder forming a stripe 
on the scapular region. The young birds have a much lighter 
plumage aU over, and look very different, but a series will show 
every gradation up to the adult plumage. 

The Painted-snipe has an exceedingly ^^'ide range, but I 
have only met with it in the neighbourhood of Ichang, where it 
an-ives in September and remains to about the end of October. 
Some years it is more plentiful than others, but it is a rare 
bird at any time in this region, and I never saw it in western 
Szechuan. It is said to breed in the Yangtsze Valley, and I 
assume this refers to the alluvial reed-clad marshlands of the 
Yangtsze delta. At Ichang it is simply a visitant. 

The favourite haunt of this bird is wet, weedy places, 


including Lotus and other ponds where the Rush and False Rice 
{Zizania) are cultivated. The flight is low, similar to that of 
a Woodcock, affording easy shooting. Painted-snipe measure 
about 10 inches, and though very beautiful are of inferior 
flavour, and not worth shooting for the table. 


Central and Western China has little to offer in the way of 
good snipe-shooting, and the phenomenal bags annually made 
in the Yangtsze Valley from Shasi eastward are not obtainable 
farther west. The high barrier mountains (Tsing-ling and 
Kiutiao ranges) running eastward from the Thibetan frontier 
and disappearing about long. 112° 30' E. have probably more 
to do with this than anything else, the migratory flight of 
the main body of the birds being east of these ranges. In 
Szechuan there is plent}'^ of good snipe-ground but very few 
birds. Snipe are not partial to the red sandstone soil, which 
predominates in Szechuan, presumably because it does not 
afford the best feeding ground. But most of the rice belt 
in this province has been so long under cultivation that the 
soil has been changed to black mud. Particularly true is this 
of the Chengtu Plain, which I have been told Snipe never fre- 
quent. This is not correct. Snipe can occasionally be pur- 
chased during the season in Chengtu city. I have shot them in 
several places on the Chengtu Plain, and in one instance found 
the birds fairly common around Mei Chou. I have also shot 
them around Kiating Fu and Hungya Hsien. In a marsh 
around the base of Wa shan during November 1904 I enjoyed 
some excellent snipe-shooting. These few facts show that 
Snipe are scattered over western Szechuan generally though 

Around Ichang quite a number of Snipe are shot annually, 
but the advent of the railway has destroyed the best groimd. 
This strip of country, only some 2 miles long, was very dear 
to the heart of every foreigner interested in shooting who 
sojourned in Ichang. Now this much-loved spot is given over 
to railway-sidings, workshops, etc., and no longer affords any 
sport to the would-be shooting man. 


In the regions we write of the three species common to the 
greater part of China occur, namely, Winter Snipe, Pin-tailed 
and Swinhoe's Snipe. 

The Winter or Common Snipe {Gallinago gallinago) begin to 
arrive early in October, and some at any rate remain through- 
out the winter, migrating northward early in April. It is 
essentially a marsh and mud-loving bird, and is generally to be 
found in wet rice-fields, more especially those recently ploughed 
up; in muddy ponds amongst the Lotus {Nelumbium speciosum) ; 
in wet grass-clad marshes, sides of ditches, etc. When in good 
condition it weighs 4 to 4I ounces, but when it first arrives it 
is usually very thin and weighs no more than 3 ounces. Com- 
pared with the two following species the Winter Snipe is rather 
lighter coloured, more slightly built bird with rather longer 
legs and bill ; tail composed of 14 normal feathers aU of the 
same size. 

The "Pin-tailed" or "Lesser Spring Snipe" {Gallinago 
stenura) arrives from the north earlier and passes northwards 
again later than does the Winter Snipe, and it does not winter 
in the Yangtsze Valley. Around Ichang the Pin-tailed begins 
to arrive from the north about 20th August, and by the ist of 
October has passed southwards. In spring it begins to arrive 
from the south about ist April, and by 20th May has passed 
northwards. How this bird (and the same remarks apply to 
Swinhoe's Snipe) gets through the whole business of breeding 
and maturing the plumage on the young in so short a time 
(three^months at most) is a mystery. I have never shot (nor 
heard of others shooting) a Pin-tailed in immature plumage or 
one which was obviously a young bird. That the birds should 
be hatched and reach adult size and plumage in such a brief 
period of time is one of the many wonders associated with 
migratory bird-life. Every one has of course shot birds vary- 
ing considerably in weight, but this is merely a condition due 
to abundance or scarcity of food. When the birds arrive first 
from the north they are usually in poor condition. 

The Lesser Spring Snipe frequents much drier ground 
than does the Winter Snipe. In spring it is partial to fields 
of wheat, pulse, and poppy, and grassy places either dry or 
rather wet. In autumn the favourite haunt is the fields of 


cotton and the margins of fields of maize and millet. In short, 
this bird favours cultivated crop-clad areas which the Winter 
Snipe, on the contrary, avoids. The Pin-tailed is readily 
recognized by its tail, which normally consists of 26 feathers ; 
the 10 central feathers are ordinary in appearance, and these 
are flanked on either side by 8 short, narrow, stiff feathers, 
from the presence of which the bird derives its name. The 
plumage generally is slightly darker and the bird rather stouter 
built than the Winter Snipe, though the scales show very little 
difference between them. 

Around Ichang " Swinhoe's " or the " Greater Spring 
Snipe " {G. megala) is about as numerous in season as the 
Pin-tailed. It frequents the same haunts and arrives and 
leaves about the same time. In 1907 our first bird of the 
spring migration was shot on 27th March ; of the autumn 
migration on 26th August. These dates indicate pretty closely 
its earliest arrival in the two seasons. 

Swinhoe's Snipe is much the largest and finest flavoured of 
the three common snipe. Its flight is slower, and it is easily 
recognized by its size, rather shorter bill, and normally 20 
tail-feathers, of which the central 8 are ordinary with 6 narrow, 
stiff feathers of nearly equal length on each side. The colour 
of the plumage is similar to that of the Pin-tailed ; length, 
II to 12 inches ; weight, 6 to 8 ounces. When in good condition 
no finer table bird exists than Swinhoe's Snipe. I never met 
with this bird in western Szechuan. 

The Solitary Snipe [G. soUtaria) is to be met with on 
rare occasions throughout central and Western China. It is 
essentially a mountain bird, being partial to long grass and 
thin shrubberies bordering the sides of mountain streams. 
In the winter of 1 900-1 I shot one bird immediately behind 
the town of Ichang, but this is the only one I have seen in the 
immediate vicinity of the Yangtsze River. On the mountains 
several days' journey south of Ichang at 4000 feet altitude, 
and again at 6000 feet altitude, I have shot solitary specimens ; 
also in north-western Hupeh at 5500 feet altitude I have 
secured this bird. In western Szechuan, around Wa shan, 
5600 feet altitude, and around Mao Chou, at 5000 to 6000 feet 
altitude, I have been fortunate enough to shoot this bird. 


It is, however, everywhere rare as far as my knowledge 

When in good condition this bird weighs 8 to lo ounces, 
and is most dehcious eating. It is the largest of the Snipes, 
measuring 12 to 13 inches. In the upper parts the plumage 
is uniformly dark brown ; under-parts, lighter brown, with 
the feathers narrowly edged with white ; tail of 16 to 24 
feathers, the central feathers are normal, and are flanked by 
4 to 6 narrow, stiff feathers on either side. 

Latham's Snipe {G. australis) and the Jack Snipe 
[Limnocryptes gallinula) have been reported from eastern 
China, but I have never met with either in central and Western 


This dainty little bird [Coturnix japonica) is found scattered 
all over central and Western China from river-level up to 
7000 feet altitude, but is nowhere really common in these 
regions. Throughout eastern China it is abundant. Prob- 
ably those found in the central and western regions breed 
there, whereas in the eastern parts of China they are largely 
migrants. These birds frequent dry grassy places, and are 
partial to the edges of maize and bean fields amongst the grass 
and weeds ; they are also commonly to be found amongst 
the dry stubble in rice fields before they are flooded and 
ploughed. They fly low and straight, and afford pretty and 
easy shooting when the crops are all cut. But when the 
maize is standing, the sport is very dangerous. Quail make 
straight for the standing crop, and as often as not Chinese 
will be found working hidden or half-hidden amongst the 

The densely populated nature of all the agricultural parts 
of China detracts considerably from the pleasure of shooting 
thereabouts. The danger of lodging pellets in some unfortunate 
native is ever present in the mind of the sportsman when 
after low-flying birds like Quail and Bamboo-partridge. 
Accidents happen to the most careful of shots, and the sport 
afforded by these birds in such places is not worth the risk. 
In parts of eastern China it is said (and there is no reason to 


question the statement) that the natives deHberately place 
themselves in dangerous places for the purpose of obtaining 
money if stung by pellets. Further, they are said not to be 
above malingering in this matter if there is a possible chance 
of money being forthcoming. In the west they are less 
sophisticated, and I never heard of such a thing happening. 

The little Bustard Quail {Turnix hlandfordi) is also fairly 
common around Ichang. It is easily recognized by the absence 
of the hind-toe, its rather long slender bill, and bright rufous- 
yellow chest. It measures 6 to 7 inches tip to tip, being about 
the same size as the Common Quail, and its haunts and habits 
are similar. 

Grilled with a rasher of bacon and served on toast, Quail 
forms a tit-bit, worthy of any table. They are not so easily 
spoilt in the cooking as Snipe and Woodcock. 

Quail are pugnacious birds, and are frequently kept as 
pets by Chinese on this account. Quail-fighting is a pastime 
much enjoyed in certain parts of China. 


It remains now only to say a brief word about the various 
Doves and Pigeons of this region. Up to about 4000 feet 
altitude in the Bamboo clumps and trees surrounding villages 
and homesteads the Common Turtle Dove {Turtur chinensis) 
is everywhere abundant. This pretty bird is inferior eating, 
and unless one is hard up for meat there is no excuse for 
shooting it. In the thin woodlands, and ranging up to about 
6000 feet or even higher in well-cultivated regions, the Greater 
Turtle Dove {T. orientalis) occurs, but is much less plentiful 
than the Common Turtle Dove. This is a very good table 
bird, perhaps the best of its family. The Pallid Turtle Dove 
{T. decaocta) is also found scattered through north-western 
Hupeh and eastern Szechuan, but is nowhere common. Around 
Ichang and westwards into eastern Szechuan the small Turtle 
Dove {T. humilis) ^ occurs as a late spring visitant, and breeds 

^ Ornithologists now put the Doves in several different genera, and the 
species referred to above are spoken of respectively as Spilopelia chinensis, 
Turtur orientalis, Streptopelia decaocta, Onopopelia humilis. 


there. This small bird has a very distinct, hoarse croaking note, 
and is partial to the tallest trees around houses and cultivation. 
Of Pigeons proper at least 6 species occur, but 2 only are 
really abundant. The Rock Pigeon {Columba rupestris) is 
found in quantity throughout the valleys of the Upper Min 
River from near Wench'uan Hsien (alt. 3900 feet) to beyond 
Sungpan (up to 11,000 feet altitude), where steep cliffs abut 
on cultivated areas. It is equally common around Monkong 
Ting, in the valley of the Little Gold River (Hsaochin Ho), 
and around Romi Change, situated on the Upper Tung River. 
It descends the valley of the Tung River to near Luting chiao, 
but is not plentiful in that neighbom'hood. This bird is also 
common north and west of Tachienlu and in the valley of the 
Yalung River. Indeed, it is generally distributed throughout 
the whole Chino-Thibetan borderland from 4000 feet altitude 
to the limits of cultivation {circa 11,000 to 13,000 feet). Large 
flocks are to be seen on all sides perched on the cliffs, in the 
fields feeding, or circling around. This Pigeon breeds in 
the holes in the cliffs, and excellent shooting can be had wher- 
ever these birds occur. For the table, however, it is inferior 
to the Greater Turtle Dove. In the Upper Min Valley all the 
villages are walled, and ruined forts and guard-houses are met 
with on all sides. Associated with these places, and breeding 
therein, and also high up in the cliffs, occurs a species of 
Pigeon which I assume to be C. intermedia,^ a species very 
closely allied to the Rock Pigeon of Europe (C. livia). This 
Pigeon is easily domesticated, and under the eaves of their 
houses the villagers and peasants fix crude bamboo baskets for 
this bird to nest in. It is regarded as a bird of good omen, and 
is reputed to shun the haunts of evil-doers ! In the Min Valley 
this Pigeon is in a state of more or less semi-domestication, 
and the birds exhibit very considerable variation in plumage, 
many being indistinguishable from ordinary tame pigeons. It 
may be that the Rock Pigeon (C. rupestris) mentioned above 
enters somewhat into the production of this semi-domesticated 
race. Both races occupy much the same territory, and both 
are met with in flocks of from 20 to 100 or more birds. 

^ This species is possibly the one from which the Chinese domesticated 
races of Pigeon have been evolved. 


In alpine regions, from 10,000 to 14,000 feet elevation, in 
proximity to snowclad peaks, there is a species of Pigeon which 
may be termed the " Snow Pigeon." This bird (C. leuconota) 
is larger than either of the foregoing species, with much 
lighter-coloured plumage. I first noted this Pigeon on the 
slopes of the Ta-p'ao shan north of Tachienlu. It also occurs 
on the Cheto shan and other places west of Tachienlu. It is 
met with in flocks, but does not appear to be common. 

A Green Pigeon, possibly Sphenocercus apicicauda, is occa- 
sionally met with in the Chino-Thibetan borderland, but 
is rare, and probably only a summer visitant. The long tail 
and beautiful plumage render this a strikingly handsome bird. 
I met with it once only, and that was around the hamlet of 
Mao-niu, situated about midway between Romi Chango and 
Tachienlu. This little village is surrounded on all sides by 
large forests, and a small flock of Green Pigeons was circling 
around high up out of gun range. L'Abbe David mentions the 
Green-winged Ground Dove [Chalcophaps indica) as occurring 
around Mupin. The same authority says that two other 
Himalayan pigeons — the Spotted Pigeon {Columha hodgsoni) 
and the Long-tailed Pigeon {Macropygia tusalia) — are also 
occasionally met with around Mupin. I have no knowledge 
of either of these birds. 

In north-western Hupeh Mr. Zappey and I saw on one 
occasion a couple of pigeons that looked distinctly green in 
colour, but we were unable to obtain specimens. Probably 
these birds were Crocopus phcenicopterus. 

The Chinese name for Pigeons and Doves alike is " Pan- 
chu." My followers gave the name " Lu (green) Pan-chu " 
to the Sphenocercus, but this is the only kind to which I ever 
heard a special vernacular name applied. 

Pigeons are everywhere domestic pets with the Chinese, 
and pigeons' eggs enter very largely into a much-esteemed 
Chinese soup. Like many other of their favourite foods and 
medicines, pigeons' eggs are supposed to possess aphrodisiac 
properties. A common practice in Western China is to fix 
on the top of the pigeon's tail at its base a small, round, hollow 
piece of wood having a slit on one side, which produces a 
humming, whistling noise as the birds circle around in flight. 



Wild-Fowl : Shooting on the Ya River 

WILD-FOWL in great variety abound all over China, 
and the West has its share, though a lesser one, it is 
true. In that great alluvial plain and swamp border- 
ing the Tungting Lake in central China they occur in myriads 
during the winter season. The same is true of the Lower Yang- 
tsze delta. Throughout the region of the Gorges wild-fowl are 
comparatively rare, for the simple reason that steep cliffs and 
deep water are not to their liking. Above Kuichou Fu they 
are more common, but not nearly as much so as farther west. 
On the lower reaches of the Min River, and its tributary the 
Ya, which unites with the Tung at Kiating Fu, they are very 
plentiful. Sandbars difficult of access and stony places near 
the rapids and races of the more shallow parts of the rivers are 
favourite daytime haunts. At night the farmers' wheat and 
pulse fields near the rivers are freely visited. The wild-fowl 
which frequent Western China in the winter season probably 
breed in the Kokonor region, whereas those which visit the 
eastern parts of China breed in the tundras of Eastern Siberia. 
The mountains of western Hupeh, eastern Szechuan, and 
Shensi constitute barrier - ranges demarking the lines of 
migratory flight. Apropos of this boundary it is worthy of 
note that Geese have never been shot, neither have they been 
observed resting, west of Ichang as far as records and my own 
observations go. Yet to the east of this point they are probably 
more abundant than any other family of wild-fowl. 

In the more eastern parts of the Empire, Chinese wild- 
fowlers find a lucrative business in supplying the markets of 

Shanghai and other large Treaty ports. They frequently 



employ methods peculiarly their own, and the following 
account, by a Chinese sportsman, is taken from that interest- 
ing book by H. T. Wade, With Boat and Gun in the Yangtsze 
Valley, pp. 139-41 : — 

" Catching Wild Ducks. — At the close of a cold December, 
some 7 miles from the walled city of Kintang, near a large 
pond, I saw a man beckoning to me, and as I approached he 
asked me not to shoot the ducks in the pond. He explained 
that his friend was in the water ; so I waited to see what would 
happen. After some time his friend landed, wearing a large 
bamboo collar or cangue, and carrying a basket containing a 
few wild and three tame ducks secured together by a string. 
He was dressed in goat-skin, with the wool inside ; his stock- 
ings were stitched to the clothing, and so oiled as to be nearly 
waterproof. Thus accoutred, he immersed his body, using 
the cangue as a float. On his hat were placed bunches of grass, 
and on the cangue two or three decoy-ducks. He slowly 
approached the wild-fowl, and when near enough dexterously 
caught the unsuspecting duck by the leg, and dragged it under 
water. I watched him until he had gathered nearly the whole 

" Shooting Wild Ducks. — Probably no man in the world 
but the Chinese fowler would enter the water up to his neck, 
in the coldest weather, to shoot ducks. His modus operandi 
is like this : a light wooden frame or a small punt supports 
his gingal. The fowler lets the frame with its freight float in 
front of him, while he, following, is concealed from view by 
bunches of grass and weeds stuck into his hat. As soon as 
within range, which is invariably a very short one, he fires 
into ' the brown ' a heavy charge of iron shot. He never fires 
at two or three fowls, as his shot costs money. He bides his 
time, and then fires into the brown." 

" Catching Geese. — A common method is to lay down a 
long line, to which is attached a number of thin bamboo slips, 
bent double, and the two ends of the bamboo inserted in a 
bean. This bait is laid on a regular feeding ground, and the 
hungry goose swallows it greedily, with the result that the act 
of swallowing liberates the bent bamboo, which, resuming its 
original shape, chokes the bird." 


heating and weighting with heavy stones. A narrow wicker- 
staging is carried down the centre of the raft, and is raised 
about a foot above the floor ; on this the merchandise is placed 
to keep it dry, or, in the case of wine-jars, they are lashed to 
the staging. 

These rafts are capable of yielding both transversely and 
laterally, and can thus pass over any slightly submerged 
obstruction. Fully loaded, one raft will carry a freight of 
about 30,000 lbs. weight, and then draw only about 6 inches 
of water, owing to the great buoyancy of the hollow cylinders 
of bamboo. Down-stream a crew of four men manipulates each 
craft, which is propelled by an oar on either side and steered by 
a scull aft and another forward, but the latter is only used in 
the more difficult places. The sculls and oars are fitted to 
Alder stumps, which serve as rowlocks. The rafts are hauled 
up-stream by men attached to bamboo lines, and several 
usually travel in company, in order that the crews may assist 
one another over the more difficult rapids. 

The Ya when not in flood is a clear-water stream, and from 
the raft the stony river-bottom is plainly visible ; often the 
boulders look so dangerously near the bottom of the raft that 
the passenger expects a bump every few minutes. A curious 
hissing and crackling noise accompanies the raft's progress 
over the more shallow places. This noise is due to the move- 
ment of the boulders and stones in the bed of the stream, 
the hollow bamboo tubes acting as sounding boards. There 
are many angry and dangerous rapids and whirlpools on the 
Ya, and the current is very swift : shooting these places is 
most exciting work. There is really very little possibility of 
an accident unless the raft is overladen, but as every rock 
and stone is visible in the clear water the uninitiated feel the 
presence of danger in a rather alarming fashion. 

In the winter season this stony river is the haunt of 
thousands of Wild Duck, which congregate in the daytime in 
the vicinity of rapids, races, and boulder-strewn shoals. Ex- 
cellent and highly exhilarating sport may be obtained by 
engaging a raft at Yachou and shooting wild-fowl from it as 
the stream is descended. A little noise will scare the birds 
on the approach of the raft, and whilst the latter successfully 


shoots the rapid or race it is up to the man with the gun to 
bring down the ducks. The size of the bag depends largely 
upon the steadiness of nerve, but it takes a few cartridges 
before one can fairly well judge just how much to " lead " 
a bird when pulling the trigger. The movement of the craft, 
both forward and sideways, considerably increases the diffi- 
culties of aim. Two guns are best, one forward and the other 
aft. The dead birds are easily retrieved at the foot of the 
rapids ; the wounded ones are carried over by the force of the 
current, and can then be finished off. Those falling on land are 
difficult to mark down and retrieve. After a little practice 
a steady shot can make a good bag of duck from these 

Early in December 1908 my companion, Mr. Zappey, 
accompanied me on a j ourney by raft from Yachou to Kiating, 
which occupied a couple of days. The weather was boisterous 
and wet, and wild-fowl comparatively scarce. We shot and 
retrieved 53 ducks, and probably killed in addition about a 
third of that number. Although the bag was not large the 
excitement and fun was immense. To anyone in search of 
exhilarating sport, Duck-shooting from a raft journeying 
down the Ya River can be confidently recommended. 

The common wild ducks found in the west are Mallard, 
Wax-bill, and ordinary Teal. Others occurring there in lesser 
numbers are Falcate Teal, Spectacled Teal, Golden-eye, 
Pin-tail, Goosander, Smew, Pochard, Shoveller, Lesser Grebe, 
and Ruddy Sheldrake (Brahminy) (apropos of the latter it 
may be of interest to mention that I once found a couple 
breeding in the margin of an alpine lake near Tachienlu, at 
15,500 feet altitude). Three species of Gull — two large grey 
kinds and a kittiwake — ascend to this region, 2000 miles inland 
from the coast. Widgeon I never saw in the west, and the 
same remark applies to the Mandarin Duck, Swan, and Geese. 
At Kiating the harsh cry of a very large kind of Crane may be 
heard any night during November, and on dull wet days small 
flocks may be seen flighting southward. Very seldom, how- 
ever, do they alight in this neighbourhood, and still more rarely 
are they to be seen resting during the daytime. These birds 
winter around the lakes in Yunnan, and apparently make a 


post-haste thousand-mile flight thither from their breeding 
grounds in the Kokonor region. 

The Goosander, Smew, Pochard, and one or two others 
are diving, fish-eating ducks, but if skinned they lose their 
fishy flavour and become palatable, but even then they are 
inferior eating in comparison with Mallard, Wax-bill, and the 
Common Teal. 


Ruminant and other Game Animals 

IN the matter of large game animals Western China is 
of special interest, since the country being so little known 
there is a possibility of new and undescribed species or 
varieties rewarding the energetic sportsman-explorer. The 
difficulties in the way of any systematic exploration of the 
Chino-Thibetan borderland are to-day very great, and many 
years will elapse before the world is thoroughly informed on 
this fascinating region. My friend. Captain Malcolm M'Neill, 
of Oban, Scotland, visited this region in 1908, and in a brief 
season secured a nice collection of different trophies. These 
included the Takin and new varieties of a Bear and Stag, which 
Mr. R. Lydekker has named in his honour. Mr. Zappey 
whose primary object was the collecting of birds, found oppor- 
tunity to shoot quite a number of animals, including the Takin ; 
the last-named, by the way, he was the first white man to secure 
by actually shooting the beast. 

Quite a number of different kinds of game animals are now 
known from Western China, but only odd specimens of each 
have reached the Occident, and there is much yet to be learnt 
regarding every one of them. More especially is information 
needed on the habits, colour-variation, and geographical range 
of the different species and varieties. The affinity of the 
fauna is with that of Upper Burmah and the Himalayas as 
far as the animals of the forests are concerned, but in every 
instance peculiar species or subspecies obtain. The animals 
of the higher altitudes above the tree-line are mostly common 
to the whole of the Thibetan highlands. ' Indeed, the uplands 


of the Chino-Thibetan borderland constitute the eastern 
limit of the Central Asian fauna. 

Personally I have hunted none of the larger animals, but I 
have been associated in the field with those who have. I have 
at different times seen in a living or dead state nearly all the 
animals described below, and in many ways have enjoyed 
exceptional opportimities for acquiring information. The 
following pages, compiled mainly from notes collected during 
my travels in this region, make no pretence of being exhaustive, 
but they may perhaps add something to the present scant 
store of knowledge. 


Bharal or Pan-(often pronounced Pai)-yang {Ovis nahura), 
as they are locally called, are common throughout the Chino- 
Thibetan borderland on the higher ranges above the timber- 
line. During the summer-time they frequent the alpine regions 
between 13,000 and 17,000 feet elevation. At Tachienlu 
(alt. 8400 feet) they have been shot in June on the cliffs that 
overlook the town itself. Around Sungpan Ting they are 
common, and in the uplands everywhere between the above 
points they are to be found roaming about in flocks, often 
of considerable size. In the winter they descend to 8000 or 
10,000 feet altitude. When fired upon, the " Pan-yang " has a 
characteristic habit of rimning a short distance, then halting 
and looking round at the enemy. 

The adult animal stands about a yard tall at the withers and 
has a long, narrow head, short ears, no mane or beard, and a 
thick, close coat of hair. The general colour of the upper-parts 
is brownish-grey tinged with slaty-blue, darker in summer than 
in winter ; under-parts white ; lower part of tail black. In 
adult rams the face and chest are black, with a black band along 
the flanks, white knee-patches, and a black stripe down the front 
of all four legs. The horns are blackish- olive with an S-like 
curvature, rounded and nearly smooth save for the annual 
rings of growth. The horns of the ewes are short, drawn 
together at the base, curving upwards and outwards in a 
somewhat scimitar-like fashion. 
VOL. n. — 10 


The " Pan-yang " is a rather heavily built animal, strong 
and active, and very much at home amongst steep, difficult 
cliff-country. It is fairly easy to stalk, though the nature of 
the country and the rarefied atmosphere render the work 
tiring and arduous. A full-grown animal weighs between 
125 and 140 lbs. ; the mutton is of good flavour, without 
any suspicion of " goaty" odour. The colloquial name, " Pan- 
yang," is very descriptive, signifying " half-sheep, half-goat," 
thereby denoting the somewhat intermediate appearance and 
character of this animal. Shooting on the Hsueh-lung shan 
range west of the Min River in the territory of Wassu on 13th 
June 1908 Captain Malcolm M'Neill secured two heads, which 
he informs me have horns measuring as follows : — 

Length Circumference at base Tip-to-tip 

No. I . . 26 J inches 12 inches 27 inches 

No. 2 . . 25I inches 12 inches 30 inches 

N.B. — Extreme tip of the last head stripped, otherwise it 
would probably have spanned more. 

The Bharal of this region apparently differs in no par- 
ticular from that found in the western parts of the Thibetan 
plateaux. Quite a number of these animals are annually shot 
by hunters, and I have seen many skins on sale in the streets 
of Chengtu city. The skins are not much valued, being used 
for lining the cheap winter garments worn by the lower 
middle class of that region. 

Another Sheep, probably Hodgson's (0. ammon hodgsoni), 
occurs immediately to the west and north of Tachienlu, but is 
very rare. It has been seen in the neighbourhood of Litang 
by at least two travellers, but there is no record of one being 
shot. This Sheep frequents the alpine regions above 13,000 
feet. Zappey saw three near the Rama-lal Pass, but failed to 
get within comfortable range. He says they were larger than 
Bharal, as they should be if they are Hodgson's variety. 


There are two distinct-looking kinds of Serow in Western 
China, but the colouring in these animals is variable, age having 
much to do with it. Zoologists are not yet agreed upon the 


systematic rank of these two varieties, but Mr. R. Lydekker 
{Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, published 
April 1909), summing up all the evidence before him, considers 
them two distinct species. This arrangement seems logical, 
and is certainly more convenient than that of regarding them 
as forms of the Sumatran Serow {Capricornis sumatrensis), 
as some authorities do. 

Throughout Western China this animal is common, and is 
everywhere known as " Yeh Lau-tsze " (Wild Donkey) or " Ai 
(Ngai) Lau-tsze " (Cliff Donkey) , the long ears being responsible 
for the vernacular name. Between 5000 and 10,000 feet eleva- 
tion in west Szechuan, Serow is probably the commonest 
wild animal. Around Wa shan, Tachienlu, Lungan Fu, and 
throughout the Upper Min Valley it occurs. I have seen 
specimens killed in all these places, and elsewhere also. The 
flat skins are commonly used as bed mattresses throughout 
these regions. Mr. Zappey shot two near Wa shan, and 
Captain M'Neill secured three specimens near Tachienlu. The 
lamented Mr. J. W. Brooke and his companion, Mr. C. H. Mears, 
shot a couple (at least) in the Upper Min Valley, below Wen- 
ch'uan Hsien. The above were all killed in 1908. But previous 
to this Messrs. Brown and Wilden, respectively of the British 
and French Consular services in China, had shot examples of 
this animal in the Upper Min Valley. In 1893-4 Mr. M. M. 
Berezovski secured specimens in the mountains north-west of 
Lungan Fu. The earliest known examples of these Serow were 
taken by I'Abbe David in the principality of Mupin in 1869. 
These animals are always found in wild, precipitous, brush- 
clad country, and, in consequence, are difficult to hunt. In the 
Upper Min Valley the mountains are mainly composed of mud 
shales, and landslips are frequent, rendering the hunting of 
these animals highly dangerous work. When startled, Serow 
plunge into the thickest cover on the cliffs, and are difficult to 
drive out into a position affording a decent shot. The natives 
snare them, hunt them with dogs, and shoot them, and occasion- 
ally capture them in dead-falls. The native dog is extremely 
useful in hunting Serow, commonly hounding them into 
positions where they cannot escape, save by rushing their 
tormentors. Though naturally timid, dogs madden them 


into making wild rushes, and they are fierce and dangerous 
when at bay. They have been known to kill the dog hunting 
them and badly wound the hunters themselves. In steep, 
difficult country an animal driven to charge by fear is 
extremely dangerous owing to the precarious foothold 

Around Wa shan the White-maned Serow {Capricornis 
argyrochcetes) is the common species ; around Tachienlu 
Milne-Edwards' Serow (C. milne-edwardsi) is the common 
animal found. In the Upper Min Valley and around Lungan 
Fu both species occupy the same regions, and this is probably 
true for western Szechuan generally with one or other species 
more common in certain districts. 

A female of the White-maned Serow shot in May 1908 
near Wa shan by Mr. Zappey gave the following measure- 
ments : length , 66Jg inches; tail, 4f inches ; height at shoulder, 
35^ inches. Colour : mane, light brownish ; body and legs 
darker and brighter than in Milne-Edwards' species {infra). 

Zappey 's experience was that the male and female kept 
together. He shot a female in the later afternoon ; the dogs 
remaining at the foot of the cliff all night kept the male in a 
place from whence it could not escape, and Zappey returned 
at daylight and shot it. 

A male of Milne-Edwards' Serow, which Zappey secured 
near Tachienlu, measured as follows : length, 66|^ inches ; 
tail, 41 inches ; height at shoulder, 39 inches ; horns, 8|- inches 
long. Colour : mane, whitish, 10 inches long ; back of rump, 
fore-legs to just above the knee, and hind-legs to half-way up the 
thigh, chestnut ; back and sides, dark iron-grey ; belly, dark 

The flesh of the Serow is dark coloured, tough, of poor 
flavour, and the least desirable meat I have tasted. 

On the high mountains of north-western Hupeh, forming 
the Han-Yangtsze water-shed, a Serow occurs sparingly, and is 
called " Ming-tsen Yang." The characters denoting this name 
were interpreted by a Chinese gentleman as meaning " Clear- 
maned Goat." This is a very appropriate name for the 
White-maned Serow (C. argyrochates), though it is possibly a 
distinct animal. Neither Zappey nor myself succeeded in 


obtaining one of these animals, though we came upon fresh 
tracks and dung in quantity. As a result of some ten days' 
hunting, Zappey only once sighted this Serow. A loud, angry 
snort in the brush, a momentary glance, and all was over. The , 
animal covered 15 to 20 feet at a bound, and was through the 
thicket and over the ridge in less time than it takes to tell. As 
the country is everywhere difficult, and the animal scarce, 
there is very little chance of securing a trophy. On the high 
mountains south-west of Ichang this same Serow occurs, but is 
even more rare there than in the north-west of the province. 

We secured fragments of a flat skin and several pairs of 
horns, but these are insufficient to show what the species is. 
A pair of these horns I obtained in exchange for a couple of 
empty bottles measure : length, 10 1 inches ; circumference at 
base, 5 inches ; tip interval, 4I inches. 

The horns of all the Chinese Serow are very similar, being 
jet-black in colour, ringed, and tapering to a point ; the 
position is erect and curving backwards. The hair is coarse, 
long, and shaggy, with a short woolly underfur, and neither in 
the colour of the pelt nor in the size of the horns is there any 
marked difference between the sexes, age having more to do 
in these matters than anything else. 


Three species of Goral have been recognized in Western 
China, two in west Szechuan and one in west Hupeh. Quite 
recently they have been lumped under one species, but this 
is scarcely a satisfactory method of classifying them. The 
Goral found in Hupeh and Szechuan are readily distinguished 
by their colour, and it is convenient at any rate to keep them 
under separate names. These animals make their home amidst 
limestone crags and precipices, and though quite common are 
rarely seen, and not easily hunted. They are not so difficult 
to shoot as to retrieve afterwards, consequent upon the 
precipitous nature of their haunts. During sunny weather 
they lay up during the daytime on scrub-clad ledges of rock 
or in the mouths of caves that are so common in limestone 
regions. They feed in the early morning and in the evening, 


except during misty, rainy weather, when they are not 

The limestone crags and cliffs of the Yangtsze Gorges and 
the glens leading therefrom are favourite haunts of the Hupeh 
species. In the Ichang Gorge itself this animal is quite common, 
and anywhere in the limestone regions in western Hupeh up to 
4000 feet altitude it is to be found. 

The natives assert that Goral are found even up to 7000 
feet altitude. There is a precipitous range near the tiny 
hamlet of Kuan-pao in Changyang Hsien, four days' journey 
south-west of Ichang, where they may be found. This range 
reaches 7000 feet altitude in its higher parts, and a variety of 
game occurs there. Quite a number of foreigners have enjoyed 
good sport after Goral in the glens around Ichang. Probably 
the first to shoot one hereabouts was Dr. Aldridge in the 
early 'eighties of last century. The late Pere Heude named 
this animal Kemas aldridgeanus ^ in his Les Memoires concernant 
I'Histoire Naturelle de V Empire Chinois (pub. 1880-1901). 
This naturalist made a great study of Eastern Asian mammals, 
and his specimens went chiefly to the Museum at Sicawei, 
just outside Shanghai. Unfortunately these specimens have 
been sadly neglected. The author above quoted was not 
sufficiently careful in the matter of defining his species, in 
publishing good descriptions, and in preserving his types. 
The consequence is, that much animal life has been wasted and 
the nomenclature of Chinese mammals rendered exceedingly 
difficult to later systematic zoologists. Anyone who has seen 
the collections at SicaWei must regret that the types were not 
sent to Paris or some other western centre where they would 
have been properly looked after, and accessible for comparative 

The Chinese who hunt Goral usually study their runs and 
snare them, or occasionally they shoot them. The method of 
hunting them for shooting is as follows : The man with his 
rifle (matchlock in case of natives) is posted on one side of a 

^ In accordance with modern nomenclature this name becomes Ncemor' 
hedus aldridgeanus. The specific name, henryanus, had been earlier applied 
by Sclater to this same animal. Milne-Edward's specific name, griseus, 
was published in 1871, and has priority over the above names if it be accepted 
that the Ichang and Mupin Goral represent the same species. 


glen or ravine, high up at a point of vantage where a clear 
view may be had. The " beaters " then traverse the opposite 
side, hurling down rocks and making a great noise. This 
startles the animal, which then skulks along the ledges, through 
the brush until driven out on to bare cliff. If there is any 
possible ledge it will descend almost vertical cliffs, dropping 
easily 18 or 20 feet from ledge to ledge. Excellent rifle-shooting 
is afforded by this beast if only the beaters can be kept 
sufficiently out of the way of danger. 

My companion, Mr. Zappey, enjoyed good sport after these 
Goral, and secured several specimens. The illustration (p. 152) 
shows an adult male and female and a young male shot by 
him in the western end of the Ichang Gorge during January 

This same Goral is common to all the gorges, and in the 
long, gloomy, and forbidding Wushan Gorge it occurs in plenty. 
As an example of luck and good shooting I give the following 
experience : — 

On our journey up river to west Szechuan in late March 
igo8 we were sailing up through the Wushan Gorge enjoying 
a moderately strong, fair wind, and were just off the hamlet 
of Nanmu-yuan. My companion, Mr. Zappey, was seated on 
the prow of the boat, and with his field-glasses scanning the 
cliffs from time to time. " This looks ideal country for Goral," 
he said to me, standing near him ; " has anyone ever seen them 
hereabouts? " "I don't know, but there is no record of anyone 
having shot one," I replied. Scarcely had the words left 
my mouth when Zappey quietly said, " There's one ! " He 
rushed into the cabin and secured his rifle ; meanwhile the 
crew shortened sail. The animal stood under the lee of a 
cliff some 500 feet above the river ; it was about 4.30 in the 
afternoon. There was considerable weigh on the boat, and 
Zappey's first shot struck a little above and in front of the 
Goral, and the beast scarcely heeded it. The second shot was 
again a little high, and immediately in front, and the animal 
swung round, ran a few yards, and then stopped, half facing us. 
The third shot found its mark ; the soft-nosed bullet passed 
anglewise through the jugular vein far into the body, and the 
Goral sank stone dead in his tracks. It was a pretty shot, and, 


from the motion of the boat, not an easy one. But the good 
fortune did not end here. This Gorge is some 30 miles long, 
and throughout its entire length there are scarcely half a dozen 
places where it is possible to scale the cliffs to any height 
above high-water mark. This was one of the few places ! 
Willing feet rushed up the cliffside, and in about twenty minutes 
the Goral was landed on deck. It proved to be a fine male. 
Our crew were delighted, and the incident afforded them 
conversation for days. They did not allow the result of my 
companion's prowess to remain at one trophy. By the time 
we reached Chungking, rumour, having fleet wings, had 
reported a bag of five ! The fact will probably form the basis 
for a legend in these parts, in which at least a score of Goral 
will be substituted for this solitary trophy. 

The " Ichang Goral " {NcBinorhedus henryanus), as it 
may be styled, has the sides of the body dark greyish ; whole 
of the tail, front part of upper fore-leg, and line down centre of 
back, blackish ; fore and hind legs from knee and hock to hoof, 
light chestnut ; and throat-patch, pale buff. The largest male 
shot by Zappey gave the following measurements : length, 
464 inches ; tail, 4f inches ; height at shoulder, 2/\\ inches. 

Returning from Tachienlu on 30th September 1908 Mr. 
Zappey secured two of the " Grey Thibetan Goral " [N. griseus). 
Here is his account from a letter he wrote me immediately 
afterwards : "At Liuyang, some 10 miles below Tachienlu, I 
got two Goral on the cliffs across the torrent with one shot. 
The bullet passed through the neck of one and through the body 
of the other. I only saw one when I fired ; both dropped stone 
dead. It was a hard and difficult job retrieving them, taking 
us nearly two hours climbing and circumventing cliffs. This 
Goral differs from those secured in the Gorges in being much 
lighter in colour all over — the legs are light creamy buff instead of 
light chestnut ; the head is dull grey with a black line from top 
of eye to the horns ; the throat is very light coloured." The 
largest, a female, gave the following measurements : — total 
length, 51 J^ inches ; tail, 4f inches ; height at shoulder, 25^5- 
inches. The animal is rather larger than the Ichang Goral, 
but the tail is the same length. 

On the cliffs bordering the Tung River near the base of Wa 



shan Zappey shot, in June 1908, a Goral which he thought looked 
different from either of the above. Unfortunately it fell on a 
ledge and could not be retrieved. Possibly this was referable to 
the Ashy Thibetan Goral {N. cinereus), which is distinguished 
from the foregoing species by its nearly uniform, distinctly 
ashy colour ; the whitish patches on the throat and feet 
smaller ; tail longer and more bushy. 

Though of quiet colour, Goral are pretty little beasts, and 
their heads make neat trophies. In a general way they look 
like small Serow, having similar but smaller horns, and a rather 
coarse shaggy hair, with a wool-like under-fur, but they have no 
mane, though the hair along the back of the neck is somewhat 
crested. They make a curious, rather penetrating, hissing 
noise when alarmed, and in early April, at any rate, this noise 
is commonly heard when traversing their haunts. Unlike their 
near allies, the Serow, they are comparatively social animals, 
and several are usually found together. The native name is 
" Yeh Yang-tsze " (Wild Goat) or " Ai (Ngai) Yang-tsze " 
(Cliff Goat). The flesh is dark coloured and moderately good 
eating, far superior to that of the Serow or Takin. 

The " Grey Goral " ranges up to 8000 feet altitude in the 
summer, but comes lower down in winter. The haunts are 
always scrub-clad cliff-country, and it does not appear to 
frequent timber. The geographical range is considerable, being 
apparently limited only by the nature of the country up to the 
altitude given. To my knowledge this animal extends from 
Lungan Fu in the north to Tachienlu in the west and Wa shan 
in the south, Goral also occur in western Yunnan, and 
extend down to Burmah, where the species is different. The 
probability is that Goral are common to all the precipitous 
country between 1000 and 8000 feet from western Hupeh, 
through western Szechuan and southwards to Burmah. 


Few animals have attracted more attention during recent 
years than this strange and interesting ruminant. The 
existence of this animal in Western China has been known these 
many years, but it was not until 1908 that specimens were 


authentically shot by a foreigner. L'Abbe David secured the 
first examples of this race through native hunters in 1869, from 
the quasi-independent principality of Mupin.^ In 1893-4 a 
Russian traveller, M. M. Berezovski, secured specimens from 
the Kansu-Szechuan border. I have no precise information as 
to just how this traveller obtained them, but I was told, when 
travelling through this region, that natives shot them and sold 
them to him. But this is all quite modern. Marco Polo heard 
of these animals during his travels in this region and speaks 
of them as "very wild and fierce animals" under the name 
of " Beyamini," probably having in mind the wild cattle of 

In the Field newspaper of 15th July 1905 appeared an 
article under my signature drawing attention to the game 
animals of Western China, and the Takin in particular. This 
article attracted attention, and two or three sportsmen visited 
that country in quest of this animal. Ill-health caused one of 
them to abandon the enterprise when nearly on the ground. 
A second was boycotted by Chinese officials at Tachienlu, and 
his expedition rendered abortive thereby. In 1908 I was again 
in Western China, and I invited my friend, Captain Malcolm 
M'Neill, to join me and try and secure this animal. He came, 
and success crowned his efforts. 

In 1908 there were three distinct parties after this Chinese 
Takin, and each party secured trophies. The first specimen 
authentically shot and killed by a foreigner fell to the rifle of 
Mr. Walter R. Zappey on 27th May 1908. Mr. C. H. Mears, 
the companion of the ill-fated Mr. J. W. Brooke, followed closely 
on Mr. Zappey's heels, securing his trophy on or about 30th 
May.^ In August, Captain M'Neill, shooting in the petty state 
of Yutung with hunters supplied by the Chiala chieftain, 
happened upon a herd in open country, and killed several. In 

^ Much confusion has arisen through wrongly calling this country Eastern 
Thibet. Politically the region belongs to China proper, forming part of 
Szechuan province. Since the boundary generally is ill-defined on all maps, 
and the country peopled largely by non-Chinese races, the term Chino- 
Thibetan borderland (see ante, Vol. I, Chap. XII) may be employed for the 
entire region. But it should be remembered that, so far, every specimen 
of the Takin has been taken in China and none in Thibet proper. 

^ See Life of John Weston Brooke, by W. N. Ferguson, p. 136. 


September, Mr. Zappey, shooting south-west of Tachienlu, 
secured a fine female, and most unfortunately lost a large bull, 
which he had knocked over and left for dead. 

Since fictitious claims to shooting and many other erroneous 
statements have been made in regard to the Chinese Takin, I 
have thought it well to place on record here the names of the 
sportsmen who shot the first specimens of this interesting animal. 
Up to Christmas 1910 no other specimens had been shot and 
retrieved by a foreigner. 

This Takin has a wide range in Western China. To my 
knov/ledge it is to be found from south of Tachienlu north to 
the Kansu border,'and from this point east into Shensi province, 
where it occurs on the Tsin-ling range. In certain places, like 
the wild country between Lungan Fu and Sungpan, the Pan-Ian 
range, and in the petty state of Yutung, it may be said to be 
common. Anywhere in these regions where there are " salt- 
licks " this animal is to be found. In western Szechuan its 
eastern limits are the high ranges forming the western boundary 
of the Red Basin. As to how far southwards this animal occurs 
we are without precise information, and it is possible that it 
traverses the whole mountain-system down to Assam. How- 
ever, since it has not been reported from Yunnan, it may well 
be that the southern limit is marked by the Upper Yangtsze, 
where it makes its great bend to the east. 

It frequents difficult country between 8000 and 14,000 feet 
altitude, making its home in the dense Rhododendron and 
Bamboo thickets in fairly open forests near the upper limits of 
the tree-line. It took Mears, as he himself told me in Chengtu 
city soon afterwards, three weeks' hard hunting in the fiercest 
and roughest of country to secure his trophy. Mr. Mears said 
that he shot big game in many lands, but the quest of the Takin 
proved the hardest and most difficult he had ever experienced. 
M'Neill, on the other hand, happened on a herd in open country 
where one would expect to find sheep, but thick cover was not 
very far off. 

A powerful animal, the Takin has no difficulty in forcing 
its way through dense thickets, tramping out well-defined 
paths which are regularly used in the passage to and from 
grazing grounds and salt-licks. Advantage of this habit is 


taken by native hunters to spear this animal. Two trees 
growing side by side are selected, and a large, heavy log-beam 
is attached to a pivot resting in the fork of convenient branches. 
This beam measures about 8 feet in length, and in the extremity 
a stout stake about 15 inches long and shod with a barbed spear 
some 8 inches long is fixed. From the end nearest the pivot 
a bamboo rope is suspended. The beam is poised by puUing 
down this rope and attaching it to a cunningly arranged con- 
trivance some 14 inches above the ground (see illus. p. 170), 
To the stout fixed parts are arranged two collapsible rods, to 
one of which a trip-rope is attached. This trip-rope is stretched 
across the " run " and lashed to a tree on the opposite side, 
the height above the ground being about the same as the 
animal's knee-height. The whole trap is a rough and strong 
yet a delicate and devilish contrivance. An animal coming 
down the run touches the trip-rope with its forelegs, and is 
immediately impaled by the spear. The cross-beam, to which 
the spear is attached, is so heavy that the spear is driven 
almost through the animal's body behind the shoulder, in- 
flicting a mortal wound. Death may often be slow, but it is 
always sure, and very seldom can a wounded beast break 
away. The " run " is only roughly trampled out, and the 
bamboo stems and other brush effectually hide the trip-rope. 
These traps are in common use, and are a source of consider- 
able danger to anyone traversing these runs. A Chinese youth 
employed by Zappey accidentally released the trip-rope of one 
of these traps, and the iron spear-head passed right through 
the thick of his thigh, luckily missing the arteries and bones. 
The spear-head (see figure, p. 170) was cut off on the inside 
of the thigh, and the shaft tugged out on the opposite side. 
The youth recovered, but suffered a very bad wound for many 

Dead-falls are also employed by the natives in trapping 
many animals, but these are scarcely sufficient to kill a large 
adult Takin. These dead-falls are fitted with a treadle arrange- 
ment, and the animal stepping upon this causes the whole mass 
to fall, crushing him to death. 

Around Wa shan the Takin is killed by an arrow shot 
from a cross-bow fixed by hunters alongside the run or by 


an ingenious gun device. It is also captured by cunningly 
arranged foot-snares. 

The Takin retires during the daytime into thickets, and 
feeds during the early morning and late evening in the open 
country above. On misty, foggy days they may feed in the 
open all day long. During August and early September, 
at any rate, cows and young bulls are found severally together 
in the more open country high up, where there is good pasturage 
in close proximity to thick cover. Old buUs are solitary and 
wander considerably. The rutting season is around the end 
of July, and the calves are born in the March following. 

The natives regard this animal with considerable awe and 
dread, affirming it is both fierce and revengeful. Near where 
Zappey shot his cow a hunter had been killed only a few weeks 
previously. Doubtless this animal, when wounded, is a nasty 
customer at close quarters, especially to anyone armed with 
nothing more effective than a native gun and spear. A 
foreigner armed with a modern rifle of high velocity, and exer- 
cising a moderate amount of caution, has nothing to fear. 
Accompanied by a native hunter, Zappey shot and killed two 
calves, and the mother immediately made off through the 
bamboo jungle, and did not attempt to attack the hunters. 
These calves were secured in the neighbourhood of Wa shan on 
27th May, and according to the natives were about two months 
old. The legs were soot-black ; ridge down centre of back, 
black ; sides, brown ; under-parts, black with long whitish hairs 
interspersed ; pelage, woolly. Both were male and, in size, 
nearly equal, measuring : length, 38f inches ; tail, 3 inches ; 
height at shoulder, 22 1 inches ; no vestige of horns was dis- 

The adult Takin is a rather awkward-looking, clumsily 
built animal, strong and powerful, weighing 5 to 6 cwt., or 
more. None of the animals shot by the sportsmen mentioned 
above was weighed. The cow killed by Zappey fell in a bad 
place, and six men could not turn her over, but only roll the 
carcase from side to side. The skinning under the difficulties 
took six hours. This animal gave the following measurements : 
total length, 8o| inches ; tail, 6f inches ; heel, i6|^ inches ; 
height at shoulder, 42J inches ; height at hip, 39! inches. The 


nose, chin, and face half-way up to eyes, area around eyes, tip 
to tail, hock and legs almost up to knees, black ; eajrs, greyish ; 
rest of body light creamy-white ; fore-part of body clearer and 
lighter than hind-part, which is mixed with greyish hairs. 
This animal was killed on 17th September 1908, and contained 
a foetus about the size of an ordinary squirrel. The adult 
males are more orange-yellow in colour, particularly on the 
neck and shoulders, with a dark stripe extending from nape of 
neck to withers. The bulls run rather larger than the cows. 
The horns are alike in both sexes, though rather smaller in the 
female. These horns somewhat resemble those of the Blue 
Wildebeeste, and are jet-black. They grow downwards and 
outwards for a short distance, then take a sharp curve upwards 
and backwards. A pair of horns purchased near Wa shan, 
and in my possession, measure : length, 2o| inches and 20 
inches ; circumference at base, ii| inches ; tip interval, iif 
inches ; widest spread, i6| inches. This is the largest pair I 
have seen in Western China. 

Zoologists attach considerable taxonomic importance to 
colour, but in the Chinese Takin they must be prepared to 
grant a wide range of variation. I have seen probably 100 
flat skins in addition to the specimens killed by the sportsmen 
mentioned above. Nearly all showed some distinct coloration, 
and hardly two were alike, whilst the extreme forms look very 
dissimilar. The general colour of the bulls may be put down 
as tawny-grey and black, with shoulders and neck bright 
golden-brown ; the mane is grey. The cows are much lighter 
grey, and the older ones are almost white in their upper-parts. 

The curved nose, short, almost square ears, and minute 
stump-like tail give this animal a strange and most distinct 
appearance. The limbs are very short, thick, and muscular, 
and the lateral pairs of hoofs are very large. The flesh is dark 
coloured, and in inferiority of flavour surpassed only by that 
of the Serow. The animal is hunted for its meat, which is 
esteemed by the natives, my poor opinion notwithstanding. 
Flat skins are commonly used in bed-mattresses, and also 
frequently made into leather. The horns are used as powder- 
flasks by hunters. 

This Chinese Takin was originally described as Budorcas 


taxicolor, var. tibetanus, by the late Prof. A. Milne-Edwards 
{Recherches pour servir a I'Histoire naturelle des Mammiferes, 
1874, p. 367, plates Ixxiv. and Ixxix.). Since then two other 
names have been applied to this same animal. In the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society (pp. 795-802, with plate), 
published April 1909, Mr. R. Lydekker considers it a 
species distinct from the Mishmi Takin, and named it B. 
tibetanus. This seems the most expedient thing to do, but it is 
imfortunate that the laws of priority necessitate the keeping 
up of the name " tibetanus," which is a misnomer, in preference 
to the name " sinensis," which is both accurate and descriptive 
from a geographical standpoint. The natives everywhere in 
Western China designate this animal " Yeh Niu " ; this may be 
translated "Wild Cattle," though "Wild Cow" or "Wild 
Ox " is an equally correct rendering. Old, solitary buUs 
are occasionally spoken of as " Ta Yeh Niu," " Large (Great) 
Wild Ox." Baber {Royal Geographical Society, Supplementary 
Papers, vol. i. p. 39) calls it " Ngai Niu," " Hill (Cliff) Cattle," 
but has evidently confused it with the Serow, his account 
unconsciously covering both animals. The people around 
Wa shan (where Baber collected his information) seem to 
confuse these animals strangely. In 1904 they insisted to 
me that the Takin was called "Pan-(or Pngai)-yang " (see 
article in Field, loc. cit.), a name which properly belongs to the 
Bharal, an animal not found anywhere around that immediate 
neighbourhood. Experience teaches one to be very cautious 
in accepting vernacular names, most of them at best are purely 
local in application, and the natives will readily invent a name 
to satisfy an inquisitive foreigner. 

I have written at length partly on account of the great 
interest which attaches itself to this remarkable animal and 
partly in the endeavour to correct certain erroneous state- 
ments and misrepresentations which have appeared in refer- 
ence to the Chinese Takin. 


The Thibetan Gazelle {Gazella picticaudata) gets as far east 
as Tachienlu. Indeed, its eastern limit may be put down as the 


snowclad barrier ranges which, running almost due north and 
south, are a feature of the Chino-Thibetan borderland. In 
early summer Goa are found in small herds at elevations of 
between 14,000 and 17,000 feet, in open moorland country 
backed by perpetual snows. Later in the season the bucks 
separate into parties of two to five head. Goa are wary 
animals, difficult to detect when stationary, since their colora- 
tion harmonizes closely with their surroundings. When fired 
upon they generally run a short distance, then halt, and 
commence to feed again. 

The summer colour of the head and back is grey (in winter 
light fawn with a grizzly tinge) ; under-parts, white ; on the 
buttocks the white area forms a large, conspicuous patch ; tip 
of tail, black. The male has black horns, nearly erect for a 
short distance, then curving sharply backwards, the extreme 
points deflected upwards, with transverse ridges closely 
crowded together. Horns 13 inches long are good specimens, 
and above the average. These horns are commonly used by 
muleteers to fasten the bit through in bridles for ponies and 
mules. A full-grown Goa stands about 24 inches high at 
shoulder ; the flesh is said to be good eating. 


This animal [Pantholops hodgsoni) scarcely enters the 
region with which we are concerned. It is said to occur north 
of Litang and in the Thibetan province of Derge, on the alpine 
regions bordering the limits of vegetation. The horns of the 
male are extremely handsome, being erect, slightly curved, 
sub-lyTate, jet-black, 20 to 26 inches long, with very fine grain 
and a number of bold, transverse ridges in front, smooth 
behind. These horns are occasionally to be seen on sale in 
Tachienlu. They are used to form the resting-fork on guns 
of first-class workmanship, and every Thibetan of wealth and 
property possesses one or more such guns. 

It is generally assumed (and with very good reason) that 
this animal gave rise to the legend of the Unicorn. Among 
the tribesfolk inhabiting the little-known region south of 
Tachienlu down to Yunnan, the belief in the existence of the 


Unicorn is general ; they declare that it frequents the country 
immediately to the west. A friend of mine who accompanied 
the Younghusband Expedition to Lhassa saw a number of 
Chiru, and he assured me that when seen in profile nearly 
every animal appeared to have but a solitary horn. The 
Unicorn figures prominently in Chinese mythology, where, 
under the name of " Ki-ling," it is placed at the head of all 
hairy animals. Its influence is always benevolent, and it 
appears at the birth of men destined to become great sages 
and wise beings. Its last advent was at the time of Confucius's 
birth (552 B.C.) ! 


Of Cervus proper three species at least are found in the 
forested regions of theChino-Thibetan borderland, distinguished 
by the natives as " black," " white," and " red " respectively. 
These Deer are sadly persecuted for their horns when in velvet. 
Fortunately, it is the males only that are so keenly sought 
after, otherwise they must have become extinct ere this. The 
full extent of this dreadful trade it is impossible to determine, 
but the following figures will give some glimmering of its 
enormity. In his Report on a Journey to the Eastern Frontier 
of Thibet (presented to both Houses of Parliament, August 
1905), speaking of the trade of Tachienlu (p. 80), Sir Alexander 
Hosie says : " Deer horns in velvet, to the value of Tls. 30,000, 
are exported annually." Earlier (p. 38) he gives the value 
of these Deer horns as 2 to 20 rupees per catty (i catty = 
i| lb. English ; Rs. i =Tls. 0-3 approx.). 

In his " Journey to Sungpan " [Journal China Branch, 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1905, vol. xxxvi. p. 38), Mr. W. C. 
Haines- Watson gives 1500 catties of Deer horns in velvet, 
valued at Tls. 30,000, as the annual export from Kuan Hsien. 
Again, on page 41, he puts the annual export of Deer horns in 
velvet from Sungpan at Tls. 15,000. There are other places 
like Chungpa, Kiung Chou, and Sui Fu where a large annual 
export of Deer horns in velvet obtains, but no figures are 
obtainable. However, the above is sufficient to indicate how 
great a slaughter of stags there must be annually in these 

VOL. II. — II 


regions. At the lowest estimate at least a thousand stags are 
killed every year for their horns in velvet. 

The Chinese consider these horns, called " Lu-jung," an 
extraordinarily valuable medicine, possessing wonderful tonic 
and aphrodisiac properties. This is evidenced by the almost 
fabulous prices they will pay for them. In the Imperial 
Maritime Customs returns for igio, under Hankow, is the item : 
" 93 pairs of young Deer Horns ; value, Tls. 8090." (Tl. i 
=2S. 9d. approx.) Western pharmacologists may say there 
is no virtue or medicinal value in these horns, but John 
Chinaman believes otherwise, and is willing to pay the price, 
high and extortionate as it may be. 

The leg sinews of these Deer are also of considerable 
medicinal value and are exported in quantity from the far 
west. Shed horns are valued for making medicinal glue, used 
in mixing pills, etc. There is a large trade in these, the annual 
exports from Tachienlu alone being estimated at 30,000 catties, 
valued at Tls. 8500. 

In every medicine shop of note, in every village and town 
throughout the length and breadth of China, Deer horns are 
in evidence. In Szechuan and other wealthy regions they are 
abundantly so. If one inquires in the east and central parts 
of China where they come from, the answer received is invari- 
ably Chungking and Yunnan. At Chungking it is always 
Yunnan and Thibet. West of the Min River one begins to 
close up to the question pretty quickly. Coolies laden with 
Deer horns are frequently met with on all the roads leading 
from the far west of Szechuan. Tachienlu, Sungpan, and other 
towns mentioned on page 161 are all trade entrepots, and are 
fed from the surrounding country. 

The highlands of Thibet proper probably contribute to 
this trade, but the headquarters is the wild, almost unknown, 
region lying between the Upper Min River, the Chiench'ang 
Valley, and the frontier of eastern Thibet. This is a region 
of high mountain ranges where virgin forests of great size 
still remain. The upper limits of these forests are the home 
of these Deer. These haunts are very difficult of access, and 
very few foreigners have had opportunity of shooting these 
Deer, consequently information is most meagre. 


The Black Deer, " Hei Lu-tsze," is the Szechuan Sambar 
{Cervus unicolor dejeani).^ I believe I am correct in stating 
that this animal is known only from its horns, no skull or skin 
having yet been received by Western scientists. The horns 
of this Sambar can be seen in any large medicine shop in Chung- 
king, Sui Fu, and other cities, and are said to come from 
Yunnan. But this is only partly correct. This Sambar occurs 
west of Tachienlu around Litang, and northward at least 
as far as the high mountains west of Lifan Ting. Unlike the 
type, this race frequents cold regions, and is in all probability 
a distinct species. Captain M'Neill saw, west of Tachienlu, 
a hind and one calf. He describes the hind as looking very 
black, so much so that in thick scrub for a moment he mistook 
it for a bear. This Sambar is undoubtedly rare in these 
regions, but it is remarkable that a race should be found so 
far north. 

WAPITI (red deer) 

This is the " Hung Lu-tsze " (Red Deer) of the Chinese, 
the " Ghwar " of the Thibetans around Tachienlu, and is 
perhaps the commonest of the three species found in these 
regions. It ranges from the Yunnan border northward to 
south-western Kansu and possibly beyond. The local chief 
of Chiala, residing at Tachienlu, keeps several in captivity at 
his summer palace (so-called) a few miles outside the town. 
These animals are about the size of a large donkey, and the 
stags carry fine horns, as witness the illustration (p. 164). The 
winter coat is light grey, and the summer coat rufous-brown, 
with a hght rump-patch. There is no record of any foreign 
sportsman having shot this Wapiti, and its identity is uncertain. 
Possibly it is a local race of the Thian shan Wapiti (C. son- 
garicus). Captain M'Neill, when shooting west of Tachienlu, 
saw a few hinds but no stag, and suggests it may be the Asiatic 
Wapiti (C. asiaticus). In 1904, in open forested country three 

^ Named after Pere Dejean, a Roman Catholic priest formerly stationed 
at Tachienlu. He first arrived in that neighbourhood about 1870, and never 
left it, dying there in 1906. He trained natives to collect Butterflies, Moths, 
etc., and he sent to Paris very large collections. In many ways the late 
Pere Dejean was a remarkable man, kindly, courteous, and noble in character. 
It is most fitting that this fine Sambar commemorate his name. 


days west of Tachienlu, I got a fleeting view of two or three of 
these Deer, but being taken by surprise I noted nothing beyond 
their size and general colour. The antlers here figured I 
purchased in Sungpan in 1903. They weighed ii|^ catties, 
and were fresh from an animal killed a few days previously 
only a few miles west of that town. Unfortunately, I lost 
them, with other trophies, through a fire in 1909. 


The first specimen of this Deer was shot by Captain M'Neill 
west of Tachienlu, in 1908, and it proved to be a new race. It 
is described and figured under the name of C. cashmirianus 
macneilli, by Mr. R. Lydekker, in Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, published October 1909. M'Neill kindly 
informs me that in height and size this animal approximates 
to the American Wapiti. The colour is creamy whitish-grey, 
but some are darker than others. He shot two hinds, but 
was unable to get a stag. He saw some, however, but none 
with horns more than 18 to 20 inches in length. 

Mr. Lydekker (loc. cit.) describes this Deer as " allied 
to C. cashmirianus, but much paler and more profusely 
speckled, the general colour being grey-fawn, becoming whitish- 
fawn on the throat and limbs, and the speckling as fully marked 
on the neck and flanks as on the back. No white on the chin ; 
but the whole of the under-parts dirty- white, instead of merely 
the abdomen. Dark dorsal line stopping short about the midde 
of the back." In the absence of male specimens Lydekker 
regards the systematic position of this animal as tentative. 
Geographically this new race is very far removed from the most 
eastern known haunt of the " Kashmir Stag," and time will 
probably prove it to be a distinct species. 

When examining, near Mao Chou,some loads of shed antlers, 
M'Neill pointed out to me several which he thought were those 
of Thorold's Deer. I strongly suspect they belonged to the 
race which now bears his name. Under its native name of 
Peh Lu-tsze I have heard this animal spoken of as far north 
as Sungpan, and very likely it ranges throughout the whole 
Chino-Thibetan borderland. The type-specimen of this new 



Deer can be seen in the Natural History Museum, South 
Kensington, S.W. 


This animal {Muntiacus lacrymans), known locally as 
" Hung Chee-tsze," or simply " Chee-tsze," derives its specific 
name from the presence of a large gland below the eye. This 
Muntjac occurs in the immediate neighbourhood of Ichang, 
but is more common some distance removed from this town, 
ranging from river-level to 5000 feet altitude. In certain 
places in Patung and Hsingshan Hsiens it is abundant. Quite 
a number have been shot above the village of Nanto, situated 
on the left bank of the Yangtsze River at the head of the 
Ichang Gorge. This Muntjac frequents brush-clad rocky 
places and thin woods of Pine and Oak where a plentiful 
imdergrowth obtains. Scrub-clad narrow ravines and gullies 
are a favourite " lying- up " place during the daytime, and it 
at all times prefers steep slopes to the more level country. 

One method of hunting this animal is to have men hurl 
rocks down the steep scrub-clad slopes, with a " gun" placed 
top and bottom walking a few yards ahead of the men. But 
the general method employed is to use native dogs, and this 
is one of the few things that these dogs are reaUy of any use 
for, from a foreigner's point of view. These dogs give tongue 
loudly, and hound and bewilder the beast until finally he is 
caught by them or shot by the hunter. Stationed at the 
bottom of some gulley or point of vantage, the dogs being put 
in at the top, the sportsman gets his chance as the Muntjac 
attempts to make his escape. But the trouble is that the dogs 
are seldom well trained, and knowing no discipline go off at a 
tangent anywhere, scaring everything for miles around. A 
point to be remembered in shooting a Muntjac under these 
circumstances, is to run and pick it up immediately. If the 
dogs arrive first, woe betide the trophy ; they eat and mangle 
the carcass in double-quick time. At best these dogs are very 
exasperating, and as often as not cause needless annoyance and 
yield no returns. Occasionally one happens on a pack owned 
by a keen and able hunter, and then one's efforts are usually 
rewarded with some tangible result. 


Muntjac are solitary animals, though several may be 
found within the same square mile. In their haunts they 
have well-defined tracts which they usually make for when 
roused. In running they carry the head and neck low and have 
a rather ungainly motion. They are not fast, though at a 
pinch they can get through cover at a good speed, wriggling 
through and attempting to slink out at the bottom in the least- 
expected place. 

The Crying Muntjac stands i8 to 20 inches at shoulder, and 
the total length is 38 to 40 inches. The body is reddish-brown ; 
top of tail bright chestnut, under-side white ; belly and inside of 
hind-legs white, front and outside of fore-legs brownish, inside 
buff ; the head and neck is yellowish-brown, with blackish 
lines down face ; the whole pelt is smooth and glossy. The 
horns of the bucks are 5 to 6 inches long, erect, curving slightly 
outwards, with the apex sharply curved inwards ; in adult 
males a small basal tine is developed. The antlers are shed 
annually, though in old animals they are occasionally retained 
over two seasons. The upper canine teeth in the males are 
protruded downwards, forming two sharp tusks about 2 inches 
long. The does are of the same colour as the bucks, slightly 
smaller, with no tusks or antlers. The young are spotted with 
white. Munt j ac-hunting is quite good sport, and the flesh is 
most excellent eating. A 12-bore, using large shot (A. A. or 
B.B.), is the best weapon to use after these and other small 
Deer, it being safer than a rifle. 

Muntjac are found scattered through the hilly country 
all over the province of Szechuan, and are quite common in 
regions bordering the western limit of the Red Basin up to 
7000 feet elevation. Being almost nocturnal in habit they are 
seldom seen in the daytime, but on wet, foggy days they are 
occasionally met with. How far south they range I have no 
knowledge, but I have seen them to the south-east of Tachienlu 
and around Fulin. 

Mupin is the type-locality for M. lacrymans, but our speci- 
mens all came from western Hupeh, and the town of Ichang may 
be put down as roughly marking the eastern limits of this species. 

The late F. W. Styan, in Wade's With Boat and Gun in the 
Yangtsze Valley, p. 126, reports the killing of M. lacrymans 


around Kiukiang and also as far east as Ningpo, but regards 
them as strays rather than residents. This Muntjac is in all 
probability Sclater's variety (M. sclateri), the type-locality for 
which is Hanchou, a prefecture near Ningpo. This Muntjac 
is the eastern representative of M. lacrymans and is distin- 
guished by its light yellow face and black outer surface of 
the lower fore-legs. The two species are very closely allied 
and very possibly be only geographical forms of one species. 
Sclater's Muntjac has also been reported from Anhui province. 

In the Chekiang province, in eastern China, a smaller and 
paler- coloured Muntjac (M, reevesi) occurs. A race of this 
animal has been described from Ping-hsiang, a coal district on 
the borders of Hunan and Kiangsi provinces, under the name of 
M. reevesi pingshiangicus , but more material is needed. Indeed, 
this latter remark is applicable to every animal reported from 
interior China. Nearly every foreigner, resident or travelling 
in interior China, carries a gun for pot-hunting purposes, if 
nothing else, and I am sure each and all would willingly assist 
science did they but know in what particular they could be 
useful. From personal experience I know the need for some 
accurate account of the different game-birds and animals 
of interior China to assist those who are quite willing to help 
scientists in these matters to the best of their ability and power. 
To do something towards supplying this want is the object I 
have at heart. 

Another species, the "Hairy-fronted Muntjac" (M. crini- 
frons), occurs in eastern China, and shows a distinct approach 
to the Tufted Deer (Elaphodus). It is described as larger than 
the foregoing species, " plum-coloured, distinguished by a crest 
of long coarse hairs on the crown of the head, almost com- 
pletely concealing the pedicles of the antlers," ^ 


These animals are placed in a distinct genus (Elaphodus), 
but are closely allied to the Muntj ac, from which they may be 
distinguished " by the pedicles supporting the very minute 
antlers of the males converging above, and not being con- 

^ R. Lydekker, Game Animals of India, p. 264. 


tinued as ridges in front of the eyes. There are also marked 
differences in the form of the skull. These Deer derive their 
name from the tuft of long hairs crowning the head — a character 
possessed also by some of the Muntjacs. In the males the 
upper tusks are very large, and in both sexes the hair is 
remarkably coarse." ^ Tufted Deer, " Hei Chee-tsze " (Black 
Muntjac), of the Chinese, are rare animals. Of the three 
species described from China I have personal knowledge of one 
only, namely, that found in western Hupeh. This species was 
first shot by Mr. A. E. Leatham, south of Ichang, in February 
1904, and described by R. Lydekker as anew species under the 
name of E. ichangensis. 

This animal is sparingly scattered through western Hupeh 
between 3000 and 8000 feet altitude, frequenting similar 
country to that favoured by the ordinary Muntjac, but not 
descending to the river-level. In early April 1907, when 
hunting ordinary Muntjac, I was fortunate enough to shoot 
a Tufted Deer. It was driven by dogs along a mountain spur 
towards me, and I shot it with No. 4's as it tried to descend 
into a low ravine. The locality was near the hamlet of Putze 
in Patung Hsien, some three days' journey south-west of 
Ichang, and very near the spot where the type-specimen was 
shot by Leatham. Some six weeks later, in the mountains of 
Hsingshan Hsien, in company with Mr. Zappey, I saw two of 
these animals together, but they disappeared before we had 
a chance to shoot. During our subsequent travels in these 
regions we often heard of this animal, but we saw no others. 
The animal shot near Putze was a female and carried a young, 
about the size of a small cat, and black in colour. The adult 
measured 28J inches at shoulder ; total length, 67J inches. 
The body and top of tail was brownish-black, stern and under- 
tail white, fore-legs brownish-black. Being a female it had 
neither horns nor tusks. 

In Mupin, western Szechuan, E. cephalophus, the type of the 
genus, occurs. This species differs from the foregoing in being 
rather less uniform in colour, and from measurements recorded 
is apparently a rather smaller animal. But the species are 
evidently very closely allied. Around Ningpo, in eastern 

^ British Museum, Guide to Great Game Animals, 1907, p. 56. 


China, a third species {E. michianus) occurs. This is a much 
Hghter-coloured animal than either of the above, being deep 
brown all over except white belly, white tip to ears, and pale 
line over the eye. 

The ears in all three species are relatively large, broad, and 
rounded. The lateral hoofs are almost rudimentary in char- 
acter, and the sabre-like tusks in the upper jaw of the males 
are not turned outwards as in the Muntjac. They have the 
same " hunched-up " appearance and gait when running, and 
do not travel fast. The flesh is very good eating. 


This pretty little animal {Moschus sifanicus) is still fairly 
common throughout the length and breadth of the Chino- 
Thibetan borderland, but is ever5rwhere sorely hunted for its 
musk. This highly valued product is secreted during the 
rutting season by a skin-gland situated on the genital organ 
of the male. The whole gland is removed and constitutes the 
"Musk-pod" (Chinese, Hsiang-p'i) of commerce. This Musk 
(She-hsiang) is by far the most important export passing 
through the border towns of western Szechuan. Hosie [ihid. 
p. 38) says that some 60,000 pods of musk, worth from 20 to 
50 rupees each, according to size and quality, are annually 
sent through the district of Litang to Tachienlu, where they 
are trimmed and prepared for the Chinese and foreign market. 
An ordinary pod in a raw state weighs about an ounce, and 
with its fringe of skin and hair is about an inch across. Adul- 
teration is commonly practised, but Chinese dealers are experts 
in detecting this. They have many ingenious tests : If the 
smell is unsatisfactory, or any doubts exist as to its genuineness, 
a few grains are extracted from the pod and placed in water. 
If these remain granular the musk is genuine ; if they melt it 
is false. Another test is to place a few grains on a live piece 
of charcoal. If they melt and bubble on the red surface the 
musk is pure ; if they at once harden and become cinder it 
is adulterated. The product exported through Tachienlu is 
esteemed more valuable than that from Sungpan and other 
border towns. 


Hosie {ibid. p. 8i) puts the annual exports of musk from 
Tachienlu at over 24,500 ounces, valued at Tls. 300,000. Watson 
{ibid. p. 38) gives the export of musk through Kuan Hsien as 
16,000 ounces, valued at Tls. 216,000 ; from Sungpan (p. 41) to 
the value of Tls. 60,000. Through the Imperial Maritime 
Customs at Chungking between40,oooand5o,oooouncesof musk 
pass annually. For the ten years ending 1901, some 483,174 
ounces of musk were exported through the Imperial Maritime 
Customs at Chungking. But these figures represent only a 
part of the export, since they do not cover what passed through 
the Native Customs. In addition to this export large quanti- 
ties are consumed in the wealthy cities west of Chungking. 
In the last Decennial Report (pub. 1904) the Commissioner 
of Customs, Chungking, writes : " The destruction of these 
animals must be enormous and must lead to their extinction 
if the present slaughter continues." The figures given above 
amply justify the commissioner's views. 

This much-persecuted little animal frequents the upper 
wooded country between 8000 feet altitude and the tree-limit 
(11,500 to 14,000 feet, according to climate), where forests 
composed of Spruce, Silver Fir, and Larch, with a thin under- 
growth and plenty of rocks, obtain. It occurs solitary or in 
pairs, though in a small area several may be found. It is a 
very agile little beast, and a favourite retiring-place during the 
daytime is the upper part of some half-faUen, sloping tree- 
trunk. Such trees it ascends with ease, and hunters closely 
examine every one of these trees for the marks made by the 
sharp hoofs of this animal. It lies close to the trunk and is not 
readily detected. Among rocks in the forests is another 
favourite haunt, A 12-bore with S.S.G. or A.A. shot is the 
best weapon for hunting these animals. The natives trap, 
snare, and more rarely shoot them. A male shot west of 
Tachienlu by Mr. Zappey measured : total length, 34 inches ; 
height at shoulder, 2if inches ; tail, i| inches. Legs, grey ; 
body, dark brown (back, reddish-brown), speckled with greyish 
and tawny yellow : head, grey ; front of neck, light grey ; belly, 
yellowish-brown ; ears, dark grey, except outside edge, which 
is light brownish-yellow ; upper canine teeth sabre-like, i^ 
inches long. 


Neither sex has horns% and the long tusks and musk-gland 
distinguish the male from the female. The hair is hollow, very 
coarse and loose, and readily pulls away. The flesh is excellent 
eating (equal to the best Muntjac), and the heads make pretty 
trophies. The Chiala chieftain keeps some of these animals 
in an enclosure at Tachienlu. They appeared, when Zappey 
and I saw them, to be very happy and contented, and we were 
informed that they bred under captivity. Certainly they 
make most charming pets with their shapel3^ face and head. 

For a small animal, Musk Deer is of stout and rather 
heavy build ; the hind-limbs are longer than the front ones, 
raising the rump above the level of the fore-quarters, giving 
the animal a hunched-up appearance. 

The type-locality of M. sifanicus is the province of Kansu, 
and quite likely the Musk Deer found west of Tachienlu 
represent a local race. Perhaps it should be identified with 
the Himalayan M. moschiferus. 


It is customary to write disparagingly of this interesting 
little animal {Hydrclaphus inermis), both as to the sport it 
affords and its value for the table. This attitude may be 
attributed to " familiarity breeding contempt." For the table 
there are kinds of venison which are certainly superior, but 
it is wholesome, palatable, and very much superior to the beef 
obtainable in most of the riverine ports of China. Properly 
kept and properly cooked, there are many worse things than a 
cutlet of this much-abused River Deer. 

Formerly this animal was extraordinarily abundant 
throughout the fluviatile regions of the Lower Yangtsze basin, 
and it is stiU very common in many places. It is hunted 
mercilessly by the Chinese, and several thousands are sold 
annually in the markets from Shasi down river to Shanghai 
and elsewhere. The low hills which commence some 30 miles 
east of Ichang mark the western boundary of this animal as 
they do of the Ring-neck Pheasant. Its home is the great 
alluvial plain of the Yangtsze, which extends from the point 
mentioned above, eastwards 1000 miles to the sea. Any 


cover is sufficient to hold River Deer, and though it is not 
averse to water and swamps it prefers the drier land afforded 
by any rising ground. In winter an ideal spot in which 
to find this animal is long grass on rising ground near to 
reed-clad marshes. When the cover is mostly cut (mid- 
winter) it will be found in open fields lying in the furrows 
and hollows. 

Small shot is usually recommended as sufficient to kill 
this deer, and so it is at 15 to 20 yards. A charge of No. 8 
shot will kill almost any thin-skinned animal a few yards from 
the muzzle of the gun if it happens to strike a vital spot. A 
famous big-game shot (the late Mr. H. C. Syers) once killed 
a Black Panther with a charge of No, 9's when returning at 
dusk from snipe-shooting. It was a snap-shot at something 
which crossed the path and entered the brush immediately 
in front of him. The next day, when he discovered what 
animal he had shot, he realized the foolishness of his action 
and the terrible danger it might have involved him in. But 
this by the way. No danger is to be apprehended from a 
River Deer, wounded or otherwise, though it is courageous 
in its own way. I have seen one beat off and wound a Pointer 
dog almost its own size. There is certainly no sport in killing 
deer at 15 to 25 yards. Beyond this distance no true sports- 
man would fire using small shot on the offchance of bringing 
the animal down. The sportsman is out to kUl mercifully and 
not to maim game. 

The only time I have really hunted River Deer was during 
the winter of 1907-8. Mr. Zappey wanted specimens, and 
we made a trip down river below Shasi in quest of them. In 
this flat country a rifle is out of the question, otherwise some 
excellent sport could be enjoyed. Using B.B. shot we had 
good sport, bagging every deer but one we fired at. We had 
men to beat the likely places and to drive the deer across. 
Most of the bag were killed at about 40 yards, but several 
fell at over 55 yards and one at 74 yards. Two or three of 
them shot square throiTgh the heart ran 50 to 100 yards before 
they dropped dead in their tracks. 

We limited ourselves to 20, but could have killed many 
more had we been so minded ; our best day was 9. A couple 


of heads mounted and in my possession form a pretty trophy, 
and are a pleasant memento of days spent in the Chinese 
wilds. Though so abundant, this River Deer is quite rare in 
museums, and it was the knowledge of this fact that induced 
us to kill so many. 

River Deer stand about 20 to 22 inches at shoulder ; total 
length, 40 inches ; tail, 3 inches ; heel, 11 inches. The 
body is tawny grey ; legs and belly, buff ; top of shoulders and 
rump somewhat chestnut in old males. The hair is coarse 
and bristle-like and easily pulls out. No horns are developed. 
In the males the upper canine teeth are protruded downwards, 
forming scimitar-shaped tusks 2 to 2 1 inches long. These 
tusks are said to develop in old females, but I never met with 
this phenomenon. The tusks are brittle and easily broken, 
at least after the animal is dead. The legs are lightly but 
muscularly built, and the animal can cover the ground at 
good speed, running great distances and taking to water like 
a duck. They are prolific breeders, dropping 4 to 6 fawns 
annually in May. The average weight is 20 to 24 lbs. ; the 
flesh is dark coloured. Swinhoe, who described this animal, 
gave it the generic name of Hydropotes, signifying " Water- 

This concludes the list of Deer found in the regions coming 
within the purview of this work as far as is at present known. 
In the eastern and northern parts of the Empire there are, 
of course, others. One of these is particularly worthy of 
mention, namely, Kopsch's Deer {Cervus kopschi), found in 
the province of Anhui, up country from Tatung on the Lower 
Yangtsze River. Very few foreigners have seen this deer 
wild, and only one or two have shot it. Captain Malcolm 
M'Neill made an abortive attempt to secure specimens of this 
animal, and writes me as follows : " Cervus kopschi are very 
hard to get and extremely shy, being much hunted by the 
Chinese for their horns when in velvet. They inhabit rough, 
stony, and brush-clad hills about 4000 feet high, and lie up in 
the scrub and long grass during the day. Size slightly larger 
than a Scottish Red Deer, and the mature animals very much 
darker in colour as a rule. Horns pretty much the same as 
the Scottish Red Deer — possibly a little longer." 



These animals are very common through western Szechuan 
and scarcely less so in western Hupeh, doing great damage to 
the crops of Irish potato and maize. Repeatedly have peasants 
almost begged of me to go with them and hunt Pig, but I never 
felt that a 12-bore and S.S.G.'s (my largest shot) were good 
enough for a possible encounter with Mr. Pig. When the crops 
are ripening, the peasants, on the approach of dusk and for 
several hours afterwards, beat gongs and make all the noise 
possible in order to scare these animals away. On moonlight 
nights the din is maintained incessantly the whole night through, 
and every traveller in Western China must have heard the weird 
noises emanating from the crop-clad mountain-sides after dark. 
The natives hunt these animals most assiduously and many 
are killed annually. The flesh is esteemed and the killing of a 
Wild Pig is an event for twofold rejoicing. 

These animals are nocturnal in their habits, lying up during 
the daytime in brush and under ledges of rock. They often 
build large mounds of dry, long grass and sleep under them 
during the daytime. One day, whilst botanizing over an 
elevated sloping plateau in Patung Hsien, I chanced on one of 
these " houses " and was considerably startled by a loud, angry 
grunt, and just got a glimpse of the black rump of a Pig as it 
rushed out and plunged out of sight through some bushes. 
Signs of Wild Pig are ever3rwhere abundant is the mountains, 
and in any day's march acres of ground can be seen which 
have been rooted over by these animals searching for succulent 
starchy rhizomes and roots. Wa shan is a great place for Pig. 
Hereabouts in 1908 Zappey witnessed the kilhng of one by 
three Wild Dogs. He reached the carcass some five minutes 
afterwards, but it had been disembowelled and rendered de- 
cidedly nasty to look upon. 

I have repeatedly been told that the flesh of Wild Pig is 
good eating. I have tried it several times, but consider it 
decidedly strong and inferior flavoured. Maybe the young are 
aU right. The only young one I ever saw looked reddish- 
brown from a distance and was too far off to tell if the animal 
was striped or uniformly coloured. 


I assume that the Pig found in Hupeh is Sus leucomystix, 
the species occurring all over eastern China and distinguished 
by a pale streak on either side of the face. This animal was 
formerly very abundant in the Lower Yangtsze delta and is 
found there still in decreasing numbers. Examples have been 
shot weighing over 400 lbs., but the average weight is between 
240 and 300 lbs. In western Hupeh this species or local race, 
as it very possibly is, ranges up to 9000 feet altitude. 

The species found in western Szechuan is 5. moupinensis, 
which has short ears and is said to be closely allied to the Wild 
Pig of Europe and southern Asia (S. scrofula). This animal 
was first secured by TAbbe David in 1869, from Mupin. It 
ranges up to 9000 feet altitude and even more, and is abundant 
from Lungan Fu in the north to Wa shan in the south and 
Tachienlu in the west. In towns, Mao Chou for example, 
the flesh is often on sale in the shops. The Chinese are a pork- 
loving people and esteem the flesh of Wild Pig above that of 
any other of their wild animals. 


Hares are fairly common in the neighbourhood of cultiva- 
tion through the whole region coming within our purview, but 
no Rabbits are found. Around Ichang Hares are fairly plenti- 
ful, though they are getting shot out. They keep close to 
cultivation, and I never met with one in the sparsely populated 
mountains of western Hupeh above 5000 feet altitude. Around 
Tachienlu, Sungpan, and other places throughout the Chino- 
Thibetan borderland a species occurs in situations ranging 
from 8000 to 13,000 feet elevation. For our purpose, the terms 
" upland " and " lowland " may be conveniently used to dis- 
tinguish these Hares. 

The upland or " Szechuan " Hare {Lepus sechuenensis) , 
as it is called, has the body brown (winter light grey) ; belly, 
white ; ears, large, brown and grey ; a white ring around the 
eyes. Weight about 6 lbs. A specimen shot by Mr. Zappey 
measured : total length, 20 inches ; tail, 2f inches ; heel, 4I 
inches. This Hare looks much bigger than it really is, possibly 
the long ears give this appearance. The measurements given 


above are those of a Hare shot west of Tachienlu ; possibly 
that found around Sungpan is a different species. They look 
the same in colour, but my memory of the Sungpan animal 
pictures a Hare approximating to the Blue Hare of Europe 
(L. timidus) in size. However, I may have been mizzled by 
the long ears. 

The city wall of Sungpan Ting (alt. 9200 feet) encloses 
a mountain-side, the summit of which is 1000 feet above the 
level of the town proper. The mountain-side is largely given 
over to terraced fields of wheat, barley, and peas. In these 
fields I have on several different occasions put up these Hares, 
and the animal is common throughout the moorlands bordering 
the wheat-field area of north-western Szechuan. It is very 
good eating and much superior in flavour to the lowland 

The lowland Hares are sadly confused, and it is not 
easy to quote names with any degree of certainty. All those 
we collected around Ichang, both north and south of the 
river, have been determined as a variety of Swinhoe's Hare 
(L. swinhoei filchneri) . The colour of the body is tawny above ; 
belly, white ; throat, buff ; upper part of tail, black ; lower 
part, white. A large male measured : total length, 20 inches ; 
tail, 3^ inches ; heel, 4I inches. The ears are short and the 
ends are black, tipped with white ; average weight, 41 to 5 lbs. 
The measurements show an animal equal in size with the 
Szechuan Hare, but it looks very much smaller when running. 
In the reed-bed region, where River Deer and Ring-neck 
Pheasant occur, the small Chinese Hare (L. sinensis) is common. 
This animal is about the size of a common Enghsh Wild Rabbit, 
weighing 3I to 4 lbs. The general colour is reddish-brown 
with a rufous patch at the base of neck ; ears and upper part 
of the tail same colour as back. This Hare is said to be 
restricted to the south bank of the river, but in the region 
mentioned above it is equally common on the north bank. 

It is possible that other species of Hare occur in these 
regions and more especially in central Szechuan (Red Basin). 
Sportsmen should closely examine any they may happen to 
kill. The colour and length of tail and ears are good dis- 
tinguishing characters. 


The foregoing are all the grazing game animals yet recorded 
from central and Western China as far as my knowledge goes. 
In shops in the town of Wench'uan Hsien, two days' journey 
up the Min Valley from Kuan Hsien, and in Tachienlu, I have 
seen a few horns of a Roe Deer (Capreolus) , but could obtain 
no satisfactory evidence as to their origin. However, it is 
highly probable that some day a race of Roe Deer will be 
discovered in this little-known Chino-Thibetan borderland. 
The nature of the country is unsuitable for Yak and other 
wild-game of the Thibetan plateaux proper. 

VOL. II. — 12 


Carnivorous and other Animals, including Monkeys 

QUITE a variety of Carnivora occurs in central and 
Western China, but none is really common, although, 
in certain places. Leopard and Black Bear have some 
claims to be considered so. In western Hupeh a few 
Tiger (Lao Hu) are to be found, and odd skins are brought into 
the towns for sale at frequent intervals. Nearly every year tales 
of man- and cattle-eating tigers reach Ichang, and several times 
foreigners have made futile expeditions after " Mr. Stripes." 
The rocky, precipitous regions of Changyang and Patung are 
favourite haunts of this beast. In 1907, when travelling through 
these districts, I saw some fragmentary remains of clothing 
belonging to an old woman who had been attacked and killed 
by one of these animals. A tigress with two cubs had been 
located in a cave a few miles away, and my companion and 
self were invited to take part in their death-hunt. To capture 
the lordly tiger the Chinese collect together to the number of 
a hundred or more and make a tremendous noise by shouting 
and beating gongs. When satisfied that the beast is ensconced 
within a cave they build a large bonfire at the entrance in 
order to smoke the animal out. All the hunters are armed 
with guns, spears, knives, clubs, etc., and when the stupefied 
tiger attempts to escape they make a concerted and bold 
attack upon him. As often as not he gets away and frequently 
some of the people get badly mauled. Tigers are also taken 
in heavily constructed log-traps, partitioned, baited with a 
live goat, and fitted with a trigger-released door. Another 
method is by poisoning the " kill." 

The Tiger found in Hupeh is a rather small animal, but is 



generally broadly and evenly striped, and the fur, though short, 
is a rich and glossy chestnut-red. The skin of a young male 
in my possession, which was killed in Changyang Hsien, in 
the early summer of 1907, measures only 82 inches, total 
length ; height at shoulder about 22 inches ; yet a more 
perfectly marked specimen could scarcely be found. 

In western Szechuan this animal is very rare, but is occa- 
sionally found in the jungle-clad wilderness around Wa shan. 
In the Chiench'ang Valley and southward through the Yunnan 
province it is more common and attains to a larger size. 
From its geographical range this Tiger would appear to 
constitute a local race which does not ascend to any great 
altitude, but is thinly scattered through the warmer parts of 
central and Western China. 

Tiger-bones (Hu-ku) are a highly prized Chinese medicine, 
and are supposed to transmit vitality, strength, and valour 
to those who partake of them. In the Imperial Maritime 
Customs Trade Returns of Hankow for 1910 is the following 
item : " Tiger-bones, ']'] piculs ; value, Tls. 6522." 


Two distinct races of Leopard (Lao Pa-tsze) are found 
in western Hupeh, namely, a lowland variety {Felis pardus 
variegata), distinguished by its darker, more red colour and less 
bushy tail, which extends inland from the coast to the neigh- 
bourhood of Ichang, where it is rare ; and an upland variety, 
{Felis pardus fontanieri) which differs in its smaller size, paler 
colouring, and more bushy tail. This latter animal ranges 
westward from Ichang to the Chino-Thibetan borderland, in 
places being fairly common. The two varieties are found in 
brush-clad, rocky country, the upland kind ranging to 11,000 
feet altitude or more. In western Szechuan, Leopard is scarce 
north of Mao Chou, but from Mount Omei southward into 
Yunnan it is prevalent. 

This animal is usually taken by the natives in log-traps, 
as described above for the Tiger ; but occasionally it is noosed 
in bamboo snares in the same way as Goral. When after the 
latter animal, near the head of the Ichang Gorge, Mr. Zappey 


came upon fresh tracks of a Leopard, but lost them again. In 
the afternoon of the same day he met two hunters who had 
captured this animal in a bamboo noose and purchased from 
them the skin and skull. 

The Sifan and other tribesfolk are very fond of leopard 
skins, making them into girdles and robes. On one occasion, 
when descending the valley of the Upper Min River, I met 
three men laden with over a hundred of these skins. The men 
had come from Sui Fu, and were bound to Sungpan. The 
skins they were carrying came from Yunnan and Kweichou 
provinces, where the animal is comparatively abundant. 


The beautiful skin of this animal [Fclis uncia), known as 
Hsueh Pao-tsze, can frequently be purchased in Chengtu and 
Chungking, where it is said to come from Thibet. At Tachienlu 
and Monkong Ting this skin is more frequently on sale, being 
brought there from Derge. This prosperous and famous 
Thibetan state is smrounded on three sides by lofty snow-clad 
ranges, and these mountains are the haunt of Snow Leopard, 
which prey on Goa, Chiru, Bharal, and other animals fairly 
abundant in those regions. 

A skin of the Hsueh Pao-tsze in my possession which I 
pmxhased at Tachienlu for Tls. 8, measures 94 inches, tip 
to tip, the tail itself being 44 mches long and extremely bushy. 
I have seen better-marked skins than this, but never one quite 
so large. The fur is very soft, long, and thick, of a white 
ground colour, covered with irregularly shaped black spots, 
each with a light centre ; on the head the spots are all black. 
The stomach is pure white and the rings on the part lower of 
the tail are broad and well defined. Unfortunately, the head 
was badly skinned and the ears cut away. The Thibetans 
hunt and trap this animal for its pelt. 

The Clouded Leopard {Felis nebulosa) is found in Yunnan 
and Kweichou, and skins are commonly on sale in Chungking 
and Sui Fu. In size this animal is nearly as large as the Common 
Chinese Leopard, with a longer tail. The ground colour is 
pale fulvous grey, heavily covered with large, irregular-shaped, 


nearly black blotches. The skins are remarkably handsome 
and rich in appearance. 

Lynx skins, locally known as " She-H p'i," are brought in 
from the Thibetan regions to the north and west, to Sungpan, 
where they find a ready market among the wealthy Chinese. 
The pelt is rather dark grey, very thick and soft, and when 
tanned weighs only a few ounces. They sell in Sungpan for 
5 to 7 taels each, according to quality and the supply forth- 
coming. Possibly this Lynx is a local race of the ordinary 
Thibetan kind {Felis lynx isahcllina). 

A number of different kinds of Cats occur in Western China, 
and their skins are commonly on sale in the shops at Chung- 
king, Sui Fu, and Chengtu. The identification of these animals 
is by no means easy, but the following have been recognized : 
Chinese Marbled-cat [Felis scripta) ; Chinese Jungle-cat 
(F. pallida) ; Fontanier's Cat or Asiatic Ocelot [F. tristis) ; 
Leopard-cat (F. bengalensis) , and a local race of the Golden 
or Bay-cat (F. tcmmincki mitchelli). In the mountains of 
western Hupeh F. ingrami occurs. This latter is a rather 
small tabby-coloured cat ; the head and body measures 
1 9;^ inches ; the tail, 8 inches. It is a particularly vicious 

Civet-cats are common all over the warmer parts of central 
and Western China. Several species occur, but exactly how 
many is not at present known. The largest and most hand- 
some closely resembles the Indian Civet {Viverra zibetha) and 
may be this species or a local race. It has the same general 
colouring and alternate white and black rings on the tail, these 
being usually about nine in number. The other species are 
smaller and less attractively marked. A dark grey Palm 
Civet or Toddy-cat {Paradoxurus sp.) is also fairly common, 
and is sometimes kept as a pet. 

Residents in Western China interested in natural history 
would do well to collect skins and skulls of all the smaller Cats, 
Civets, etc., for our knowledge of the species found in this 
region is most inadequate. Such a collection would be a boon 
to systematic zoologists, and new species and races would 
undoubtedly be found. 



This richly coloured animal is rare in Szechuan, but more 
common in Yunnan. In the former province it occurs in the 
south-west corner beyond the Chiench'ang Valley, frequenting 
the forested and brush-clad country between 5000 and 10,000 
feet altitude. In Chungking, Sui Fu, Chengtu, and other cities 
the skin is often on sale. 

In the shape of its head, short, broad face, and short ears 
this animal is very catlike ; the claws too are partially retractile. 
The limbs are short and stout ; the soles of the feet furry ; 
the tail is 16 to 18 inches long ; stout, cylindrical, and ringed 
at intervals like a civet-cat. The fur is long, soft, rich, dark, 
ferruginous on back, shoulders, and flanks ; under-parts, black ; 
claws, white ; soles of feet, greyish ; forehead, chestnut with 
rufous stripe running down from the eye to near the snout ; 
face, lips, edges, and inner surface of ears, white ; outer surface 
of ears, dark red. 

The Chinese Panda ranges from 38 to 44 inches, tip to tip, 
and weighs 9 to 10 lbs. It is darker and rather larger than the 
typical Himalayan species, and has been recognized as a 
distinct race under the name of Ailurus fulgens styani. Its 
colloquial name is " Chu-chieh-liang," which refers to the 
nine rings on the tail. 


This unique animal [Ailuropus melanoleucus) is perhaps 
the most interesting beast found in Western China. Originally 
discovered by I'Abbe David in Mupin (1869), it was again met 
with by M. M. Berezovski in the Kansu-Szechuan frontier 
during 1892-94, but so far there is no record of a foreigner 
having killed a specimen ; those obtained by the above 
collectors were taken by natives. Several skins, more or less 
imperfect, have reached Europe within recent years, but no 
foreigner has so far seen a living example. The natives of 
the Chino-Thibetan borderland know this animal well and call 
it the " Peh Hsiung " (White Bear). In Chinese literature 
it is referred to as the "Pi." Skins are, on rare occasions, on 
sale in Chengtu, where they command high prices. In that 




city I have seen in the possession of Europeans several fine 
examples in use as floor-rugs, but I was never able to secure a 
specimen myself. 

The ears, shoulders, and legs of this animal are black, and 
black rings surround the eyes ; the rest of the body is rich 
creamy white. It has a distinct if short tail, and the soles of 
the feet are hairy. The fur on the pelt is long, glossy, rather 
soft, and very handsome in appearance. "Parti-coloured" 
well describes this beast, though from the preponderance of 
white the native name "White Bear" is very applicable, 
especially in contradistinction to the Black and Brown Bears 
of the same region. 

The Parti-coloured Bear ranges from the vicinity of Wa 
shan westwards to the forests beyond Tachienlu, northwards 
to Sungpan, and thence eastwards through the high mountains 
to the vicinity of Lungan Fu. It is essentially a denizen of 
the Bamboo jungles between 6000 and 11,000 feet, feeding 
on the young shoots of these plants. The natives declare that 
it eats nothing else, but this assertion is probably too sweeping. 
Throughout the large area encompassed within the above 
boundaries. Bamboo jungles are a characteristic feature, forming 
well-marked zones. In the sparsely timbered belts and in 
open Silver Fir forests. Bamboo forms absolutely impenetrable 
thickets. The culms are slender and grow some 10 to 12 feet 
tall. These plants are impatient of shade from above and 
grow so thickly together as to starve out all undergrowth and 
rival shrubs. The young shoots which continue to spring up 
from June to end of September, according to altitude and 
species, are white within and excellent eating. The Giant 
Panda shows good taste in confining his diet mainly to this 
excellent vegetable ! 

This animal is not common, and the savage nature of the 
country it frequents renders the possibility of capture remote. 
It is occasionally shot by native hunters when after Budorcas 
and Serow, but is not regularly hunted. It is also sometimes 
captured in dead-fall traps. 

According to the natives, the Peh Hsiung hibernates for 
the six or seven months in hoUow trees, dry, rocky hollows, and 
caves. Both Mr. Zappey and myself saw evident signs of 


this animal around Wa-wu shan and south-west of Tachienlu 
and have every reason to beheve that the accounts given by 
natives are substantially correct. It is a solitary animal, and 
makes beaten tracks through the forest, frequenting the same 
haunts for long periods, as is evident from the large heaps of 
its dung which are often met with in the Bamboo jungle. An 
adult specimen is said to measure 4 to 5 feet and to weigh 
about 200 lbs. The furry soles probably form a protection 
against the splintery stumps of the dead Bamboo culms. 

In general appearance this animal is distinctly bearlike, 
but the skull is much broader than in the Bears proper, and in 
the teeth and general skeleton it approximates more closely 
to true Panda. It is the sportsman's prize above all others 
worth working hard for in Western China. 


Of Bears proper one species only is common in western 
China. This is a Black Bear which the Chinese term " Gho 
Hsiung " (Dog Bear). This animal gets east as far as north- 
western Hupeh, where, however, it is rare. In the forested 
regions of the Chino-Thibetan borderland it is fairly abundant, 
ranging as far north at least as Sungpan. Between this town 
and Lungan Fu, several days' journey to the eastward, it is 
prevalent. Around Wa shan in the south and westwards to 
Litang it is also common. Its altitudinal range depends largely 
upon the agricultural possibilities of the country, for although 
this Bear is essentially a lover of rocky forested regions it 
keeps in the vicinity of cultivation. It is fond of maize cobs 
and is often surprised and captured whilst feeding on this crop. 
The limit of maize-cultivation varies from 7500 to 9000 feet, 
according to climatic conditions. The Dog Bear ranges 1000 
feet or so above these limits, and descends to 5000 feet altitude, 
and even lower in sparsely peopled districts. Starchy roots 
and the various fruits of the forests constitute the principal 
food. It hibernates during the winter in dry, rocky caves and 
in hollow tree-trunks. Cubs are frequently to be seen in June — 
pretty little black fuzzy fellows, having all the playfulness 
characteristic of the family. They become ugly with age, 


however, and treacherous even towards the hand that feeds 
and pets them. Herr Weiss, German Consul at Chengtu, had a 
couple which he kept in the Consulate garden for nearly three 
years, finally presenting them to the Chinese authorities for 
transmission to the Zoo in Peking. I saw these animals on 
many occasions and it was amusing to watch them enjoying 
a bath and frolicking together. Their presence was known to 
every one in Chengtu, and the local Chinese were much afraid 
of them and gave their quarters a wide berth. But hunters 
do not fear them, and the beast is often surrounded by a 
group of men and killed at close quarters. An adult averages 
about 6 feet in length, and weighs about 250 lbs. when fat. 
The fur is jet-black, with a clear white V-shaped mark on the 
chest and a white spot on the lower jaw ; the muzzle is dark 
brown, claws dark horn colour ; the hair is long and soft, 
A specimen secured in western Hupeh by our expedition 
measured 73 inches from nose to tip of tail ; 40 inches across 
skin at widest part ; height at shoulder, 38 inches ; hind-paw, 
9 inches long, 3^ inches wide ; fore-paw, 7f inches long, 4f 
inches wide ; claws, ^^ inches long. 

Some confusion exists as to the specific identity of this 
Bear. Captain Malcolm M'Neill shot two specimens near 
Tachienlu in 1908. A skin and skull of one of these was 
submitted to Mr. R. Lydekker for determination. In the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 607-10, 
with figures (pub. October 1909), Mr. Lydekker discusses 
this animal and considers it a distinct race of the Himalayan 
Black Bear,i naming it in honour of its discoverer, Ursus 

^ The oldest name for the Himalayan Black Bear is Ursus thibetanus, 
F. Cuvier, and the reason given by Dr. Blandford (p. 198, Fauna of British 
India ; Mammalia) in rejecting this name in favour of Ursus torquaius, 
" because the animal is unknown from Thibet," is scarcely adequate. It is 
perfectly true that no specimen, not excepting M'NeiU's, Berezovski's, and 
Mitchell's, has been reported from Thibet proper, and consequently the name 
"thibetanus " is a misnomer. But if this argument was generally accepted 
in scientific literature it would be necessary to change a very large number 
of specific names. For example, the names of Crossoptilun tibeianum and 
Budorcas tibetanus would have to be altered, since neither occurs in Thibet 
proper. Following the laws of priority, therefore, the Szechuan Black Bear 
becomes Ursus thibetanus macneilli. (See Allen in Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
Harvard, 1912, xl. No. 4, p. 239.) 


torquatus macneilli. He describes it as differing from the type 
in the " greater length and softness of the hair, much smaller 
size of the cheek-teeth, rather broader skuU, and distinctly 
vaulted palate which is nearly flat in the typical Himalayan 
race." The Szechuan race is founded on a male, and the skull 
is in the British Museum, Natural History Branch. This 
museum, Lydekker states, "is in possession of a skull of a 
female collected by Berezovski," which he also refers to his 
new race.i 

All this is clear and would be amply sufficient to settle the 
identity of this animal, but for the fact of the same author 
having, at an earlier date, referred a Black Bear from Szechuan 
to the Malay Bruang, as a distinct race under the name of 
Ursus malayanus wardi, in compliment to Rowland Ward, 
from whom he received the skull. This latter (communicated, 
I believe, by Mr. Mason Mitchell, erstwhile American Consul 
at Chungking) came " from the Thibetan area," and " belonged 
to a fully adult Bear of the Ursus malayanus type, as is evident 
from its width and relative shortness ' ' (Lydekker, Game 
Animals of India, p. 388). 

In 1905 Rowland Ward had received a skull and skin of 
a Bear, " reputed to come from either eastern Thibet or the 
north-western provinces of China." The skull " was clearly 
that of a Bruang," but the skin had " much larger black hair 
than the ordinary Malay Bear, with long fringes to the ears, 
and the usual whitish gorget on the throat." " The entire 
specimen was moimted and sold to the Bergen Museum as 
Ursus torquatus " (Lydekker, loc. cit.). And on p. 389 : " The 
skin of the Bergen specimen is stated to be more like that 
of a Himalayan Black Bear than a Malay Bruang." 

From the above it would appear that there are two races 
of Black Bear in Szechuan belonging to distinct species. 
Without in the least doubting Mr. Lydekker' s correct identity 
of the skulls in question, there are good grounds for being 
sceptical about the occurrence of these two kinds of bears in 

^ M. M. Berezovski made his greatest and last collection of animals in the 
region of the Kansu-Szechuan border, a little to the north-west of Lungan Fu, 
from 1892-94, and in all probability this Bear was obtained there, since it is 
common in that neighbourhood. 


Szechuan or in the nondescript regions bordering this province 
and Thibet proper. I have seen in these regions several Dog 
Bears in the flesh, and a great number of skins, and all were 
uniform in appearance. Every person I have met in Western 
China, having personal knowledge of this bear, considered it 
as the Himalayan Black Bear. Captain M'Neill, who knows 
the Himalayan animal well, considered the two bears he shot 
near Tachienlu as identical with the Himalayan race. Mr. 
Lydekker's examination of M'Neill's specimen confirms this 
statement in so far as the specific affinity is concerned. 

The skull of the specimen secured in western Hupeh and 
referred to above is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Harvard College, and agrees exactly with Lydekker's 
figures of the race macneilli. Mr. A. E. Pratt [Snows of Tibet, 
p. 233) says that he secured two bear cubs near Tachienlu : 
" One reached England alive and was sent to the Zoo." It 
would be interesting to learn what became of this animal. 

The Gho Hsiung is well known locally to natives and 
foreigners alike as the Common Black Bear of Western China, 
and it seems scarcely possible that two kinds could be confused 
under one vernacular name. In the medicine and skin shops 
of Sui Fu, Chungking, and other large cities in the west, all 
sorts of curious specimens brought from long distances, and 
notably from Yunnan, are on sale. There is no reason why the 
Malay Bruang, or a local race of this animal, should not occur 
in the warmer parts of southern and south-western Yunnan, 
and the skulls (hke those of other animals occasionally used by 
fortune-tellers) find their way into the larger cities of Szechuan, 
after the manner of other products of those regions. I venture 
the suggestion that the skulls referred by Mr. Lydekker to a 
race of the Malay Bruang may possibly have had such an 
origin, and that the skin of the Bergen specimen is that of the 
Szechuan race of the Himalayan Black Bear. If the specimens 
were purchased from Chinese sources such a confusion could 
very easily arise. Whilst I incline to the belief that the race 
macneilli represents the only Black Bear found in western 
Szechuan, it is obvious that more information in the shape of 
authentic skins and skulls is needed before the point can be 
finally settled. 


Another Bear is commonly spoken of by the natives of the 
Chino-Thibetan borderland under the name of " Ma Hsiung " 
(Brown Bear). This animal is said to be larger and more 
savage than the Common Black Bear and to frequent the upper 
limits of the timber-belt bordering the grasslands of eastern 
Thibet. A gentleman in Chengtu had a reputed skin of this 
Ma Hsiung, which he used as a floor-rug. Unfortunately I was 
prevented from seeing this pelt. It was described to me as 
" dark chestnut-brown, with hair long and coarse." 

The skins of the Black Bear are not much valued but are 
commonly used by muleteers as rough garments and cover-alls, 
and by peasants and others as bed-mattresses. 

Bears' gall (Hsiung tan) constitutes a medicine in consider- 
able repute among the Chinese. 


Wolves are not unknown in central China, but are very rare, 
and the same is true in the west also. On the confines of 
Thibet they are more numerous, and in the grasslands they are 
common. Quantities of the pelts are imported into Western 
China by way of Tachienlu, Monkong Ting, and Sungpan Ting. 
These skins, known as Lang p'i, sell for Tls. 175 to 2*50 
each, according to supply and quality. The colour varies very 
considerably, but aU that I have seen were, relatively, very pale 
grey, with the hair on the back tipped with black. The pelage 
is long, thick, and woolly below. In size these skins vary 
greatly ; of the several in my possession the largest measures 
70 inches total length. This came from Tachienlu. Two 
species of Wolf {Lupus filchneri and L. karanorensis) have 
recently been described from north-eastern Thibet and may 
range southwards to the vicinity of Tachienlu. 

Around Ichang and other places in that vicinity an animal 
spoken of as the " Dog-headed Fox " (Gho-tou Hu) occasionally 
puts in an appearance, and is much dreaded by the people on 
account of its partiality for carrying off small children and goats. 
Some have supposed this animal to be a Jackal, but skins of two 
specimens that had been killed near Ichang and brought to us 
represented nothing other than two old and mangy wolves. 


Wild Dogs (Tsai Gho) haunt parts of western Szechuan 
and quickly drive or kill out all game animals. One afternoon, 
in 1908, when after pheasants, I saw eight or ten of these beasts 
within a mile of the hamlet of Tatienchih, situated at the foot 
of Wa shan. There were three or four together and very 
brazen, allowing me to approach within 100 yards of them 
before they slowly moved off. Wild pigs are common in this 
neighbourhood, and on one occasion Mr. Zappey saw a pig 
attacked and partly devoured in a few minutes by three of 
these Wild Dogs. This animal is rather larger than a Fox 
and decidedly lanky in appearance. The general colour is 
rufous- grey, the front part of the lower legs being black. The 
hair is long, and the animal probably represents a local race. 
Unfortunately, our expedition failed to secure a specimen. 

Foxes are more or less common all over central and 
Western China, and enormous numbers of skins are imported 
into China from Thibet. The ordinary kind met with in 
central China has rather short fur, reddish-chestnut in colour, 
and is of fair size. The Thibetan animal is more fulvous in 
colour and has longer fur. The skins known as Hu-U p'i are 
much esteemed by the Chinese for lining silk garments, and 
are worth Tls. i'40 to 175, according to quality. In Hupeh 
this animal is colloquially known as " Mao Gho," and this 
particular species may be Vulpes lineiventer, which is common 
in eastern China. 

Three or four species of Fox {Vulpes filchneri, V. ladacensis, 
V. aurantioluteus, V. waddelli) have been reported amongst 
the trade-skins which enter China from Thibet. 

Raccoon Dogs (Gho Wan-tsze) are rather common at low 
altitudes in central and Western China. Their burrows are 
frequently met with, and they levy a severe toll on pheasants 
in particular. On one occasion in Hupeh I killed and marked 
down a hen pheasant, and on going to retrieve it a few minutes 
later, found that the bird had fallen opposite the mouth of 
one of these burrows and had been drawn inside by a Raccoon 
Dog. The animal found in Hupeh is about the size of a large 
tom-cat, dark brown in colour, with a short, bushy, ringed tail. 
I do not know what particular species this kind is referable 
to, possibly it is Nyctereuies procyonides. In western Szechuan 


a species, pale buff in colour, with the centre of the back and 
upper part of the tail black, occurs. This has been named 
Nyctereutes stegmanni. 

Badgers are not uncommon, and at Ichang Otters are 
used for catching Fish. 

It is not easy to draw the line between game and verminous 
animals, but several of the above obviously belong to the 
latter class. 

Above the tree-limit in open grassland areas the Himalayan 
Marmot, or " Hsueh Chu-tsze " (Snow-pig) {Marmota hima- 
layanus), is abundant, especially around Sungpan and west 
of Tachienlu between 10,000 and 15,000 feet altitude. This 
animal lives in colonies and has a habit of standing on its hind 
legs at the mouth of its burrow and uttering a shrill noise, 
half squeal, half whistle. It can be easily shot, but is with 
difficulty retrieved, for imless killed outright it disappears 
into the inner recesses of its warren. The male animal is 
ochre-grey in colour ; the female nearly cream-buff. Adults 
measure about 28 to 30 inches in length, including the tail, 
which latter measures about 5^ inches. The fiu- is coarse 
and thick, and the skins are an article of commerce in Sungpan, 
Monkong, and Tachienlu, from whence they are exported to 
various parts of Western China. These skins, known as Ma-sha 
p'i, are valued at about 45 tael cents each. 

Many kinds of fur-bearing animals of small size occur in 
central and Western China. These include the Mouse-hare 
{Ochotona), Bamboo-rat [Rhizomys), Martin (Maries), Flying 
Squirrel {Pteromys), and many species of Squirrel proper. Of 
these latter I do not remember seeing one frequenting a tree 
in central China. All of them were rock-loving squirrels. 
The Bamboo-rat {Rhizomys vestitus) is an interesting animal, 
about 16 to 18 inches long, grey with a white streak down 
the chest, and has sharp vicious front teeth and powerful 
jaws. It is common in the jungles up to 8000 feet altitude 
from Sungpan southwards to Wa shan. 

Travellers through the Ichang gorges are commonly regaled 
with stories of Monkeys roaming in troupes over the cUffs 
and occasionally throwing stones at passing boats. The stone- 
throwing proclivities of these animals were once solemnly 


advanced by local Chinese officials as a reason why foreign 
steamships should not be allowed to ply between Ichang and 
Chungking ! I have been through these gorges many times, but 
have never seen a Monkey. However, it is probable that they 
do occur in this region. The Chinese are very fond of Monkeys 
as pets, and have many curious legends concerning them. 

A number of species are known to occur in China, especially 
in the west, where is found the Snub-nose Monkey, or Chinese 
Langur {Rhinopiihecus), of which three species are now known. 
The members of this curious family all have ridiculously 
upturned noses, tails of great length, and remarkably long 
and silky hair. The oldest-described species is R. roxellance, 
which is fairly common in the forests of the Chino-Thibetan 
borderland, from the neighbourhood of the Kansu frontier 
southwards, but more especially in the Chiarung states of Wassu 
and Mupin and the region lying between Romi Chango and 
Tachienlu, where it occurs in troupes in the coniferous forests 
between 8000 and 12,000 feet altitude. In the males the 
cheeks, throat, sides of the head and neck are bright rusty red, 
with light patches over the eyes ; crown of head and nape, 
rich red-brown ; back, grey ; inner sides of the limbs, under- 
parts, upper sides of the hands and feet, rich orange or bright 
golden-red ; tail, grey, tipped creamy white ; the bare parts 
of the face and nose, blue. The female is rather smaller and 
lighter-coloured in general, with theforehead uniformly coloured 
bright orange. The male measures about 30 inches head and 
body, and has a tail about 28^ inches long. The skin of this 
animal, especially that of the under-parts with the long golden 
tresses of hair, is used as a lining for garments and worn by 
the Chinese as a cure for, and preventive of, rheumatism. 

In the upper reaches of the Mekong River a second species 
{R. hieti) occurs. The head and body of the male measures 
about 33 inches and the tail 28|- inches ; the throat, chest, 
sides of the rump, and flanks are white, the rest of the body 
is more or less slaty or bluish-grey ; the bare parts of the face 
bluish-green. The female is smaUer, more greyish on the 
throat and stomach. The very young animals are pale grey, 
or almost white. The male of this species has a remarkably 
fine and thick tail. 


Quite recently a third species has been described from north- 
eastern Kweichou under the name of R. hrelichi. This is 
apparently the finest of its family, and is one of the largest 
Monkeys known apart from the anthropoid Apes. It is only 
known from a fiat skin of a female animal, in which the head 
and body measures about 29 inches and the tail nearly 39 
inches. In colour the back is slaty-grey, with a white patch 
between the shoulders ; crown suffused with yellowish hairs, 
having black tips ; ears, white ; front of shoulders and inner 
sides of forearms, deep yellow ; tail, dark with white tip, and 
longer than in any other known species. The type-specimen 
is said to have come from " Van Gin shan, about lat. 29° N., 
long. 108° E." If this is correct the region is several days' 
journey to the south-south-east of Chungking. Sportsmen- 
naturalists sojourning at this port would do well to interest 
themselves in this remarkable animal, for, since only a flat 
skin is known, it is obvious that specimens (skuUs and skins) 
are much needed. 

It is probable that this species is the famous Hai-tuh of 
Chinese literature of which the following account is given : 
" Its nose is turned upward, and the tail very long and forked 
at the end ; whenever it rains, the animal thrusts the forks 
into its nose. It goes in herds and lives in friendship ; when 
one dies the rest accompany it to burial. Its activity is so 
great that it runs its head against the trees ; its fur is soft and 
grey and the face black." 

Several species of short-tailed Baboons (Macacus) are found 
in Western China. L' Abbe David secured in Mupin specimens of 
M. tibetanus, and this is probably the same Monkey common on 
the middle slopes of Mount Omei and in the region of Wa shan. 
In the valley of the Upper Yangtsze, near Batang, M. vestitus 
was discovered by M. Bonvalot and Prince Henri d'Orleans. 
In the valley of the Yalung River, near Hokou (Na-chu-ka), 
between 9000 and 11,000 feet altitude, M. lasiotis is quite 
common. A female specimen, secured by my companion Mr. 
Zappey, measured 20I inches, the tail being 61 inches long. 
The fur is soft and silky, of an olivaceous tint on the head, 
brightening to nearly clear pale orange-ochraceous on the hips ; 
feet and fore-Umbs greyish. 


Monkeys are of course outside the pale of game animals, 
and many sportsmen strongly object to shooting them. They 
are, however, of peculiar interest to all, and since more speci- 
mens are badly needed, I have thought it advisable to allude 
to them here. It is not easy to draw the line between game 
animals and vermin, but those interested should bear in mind 
that the animals of central and Western China are far from 
being well known, and that all are rare in museums. Anything 
and everything of this nature, therefore, is of interest and 
value, even trade-skins. Sportsmen-naturalists sojourning or 
travelling in these regions may confer a boon to the science 
of systematic zoology by collecting skins and skulls of all 
mammals they meet with. 

VOL. II. — 13 


Minerals and Mineral Wealth 

MINING has been carried on in China for some thou- 
sands of years and, in spite of crude methods and the 
superstition of Fung Shui against which the industry 
has had to contend, an enormous quantity of mineral wealth 
has been won from the earth. During the Han Dynasty (206 
B.C. to a.d. 25) coal was used as fuel in certain districts, and taxes 
were levied on iron and salt. Iron mines have been worked in 
China from very remote times, and this industry, like that 
of coal-digging, has always been fairly free from official inter- 
ference. But mining for other minerals and metals has ever 
been more or less a Government monopoly, and especially 
is this true of gold, copper, tin, and salt. Intermittently 
during past centuries, the industry has been vigorously pursued 
in restricted localities, yet, paradoxically enough, mining in 
China is in its infancy, for the science of the subject has not 
been understood or developed, even though the products of 
the industry have been fully appreciated and generally applied. 
During the past quarter of a century there has been a real 
awakening on the part of the Chinese to the importance of 
developing the mining industry, and it is safe to say that the 
next fifty years will see the mineral and metalliferous resources 
of the country tapped and worked on all sides, and mining will 
assume an importance colossal in comparison with its position 
in the past. 

The mineral wealth of China has attracted very consider- 
able attention from Occidentals during the last decade or two, 
and concession-hunters have been busy acquiring mining 
rights and grants from the Central Government at Peking. 


These favours have usually been strongly opposed by the 
provincial authorities, backed by the local gentry, and have 
involved all parties in endless trouble and difficulty. With 
one or two noteworthy exceptions these concessions have 
never been seriously taken up. Vexatious restrictions, official 
double-dealing, and the opposition of the local gentry have 
generally proved too much for the foreign concessionaire, and 
after a time the rights have been allowed to lapse. Western 
China being so remotely situated from the coast has naturally 
received less attention in these matters from foreigners, and I 
am only familiar with one such concession which has been 
developed by foreign capital. This is a coal mine, located a 
few miles to the north of Chungking, with which the late 
Archibald Little was concerned. This notable pioneer eventu- 
ally disposed of his rights to a Syndicate, which almost immedi- 
ately, and through no fault of its own, became involved in 
difficulties with the local gentry. Ultimately realizing the 
absolute impossibility of developing the purchase satisfactorily, 
the Syndicate sold it back to the Chinese, which was exactly 
what the gentry had determined should come to pass. 

In Vol. I Chapter VI mention is made of the mineral wealth 
of the Red Basin, and it is unnecessary to enter more deeply 
into the subject in so far as this particular region is concerned. 
Although coal, iron, and salt abound throughout the Red 
Basin the province of Szechuan is not otherwise rich in mineral 
wealth. In the south-west corner of the province is found 
an extension or, perhaps more correctly, a terminative out- 
cropping of the rich metalliferous strata which is so important 
a feature of Kweichou and Yunnan provinces to the south. 
These regions supply Szechuan with copper and other metals. 
Although quantity may be lacking, unquestionably a consider- 
able variety of metals and minerals do occur in western 
Szechuan, and, whatever wealth in this direction there may be, 
it is practically as intact to-day as it was a thousand years ago. 
Chinese antipathy to mine-development is well known, but it 
is probable that official rapacity and peculation has had more 
to do with the non-development of this industry than has mere 
prejudice to disturbing the fabled dragon which slumbers be- 
neath the earth's crust. In Vol. I Chapter XVIII it is told how 


official exactions had resulted in the closing down of certain 
copper-workings ; the same story could be told of silver and 
gold mining in various places throughout the Chino-Thibetan 
borderland. In several instances Chinese capital has been 
invested in mines and work commenced, but after a few months 
the whole thing has been abandoned for reasons usually 
connected with peculation official and otherwise. 

The districts supposed to be rich in precious metals are 
zealously guarded by official eyes, and foreigners are less 
welcome guests in such places than elsewhere in China. My 
business had nothing to do with mines or mining, and it was 
politic to keep away from any gold or silver workings. I 
never exhibited any curiosity in this direction, although both 
in Yunnan and Szechuan I have passed within close range 
of several mines reported rich in one or other of these metals. 
But without being obtrusive it is possible to gather information 
of all sorts, yet this short chapter is written with great reluct- 
ance, and only because of its necessity in order to complete 
the account of these little-known regions. 

In earlier chapters mention is made of the rude placer- 
mining carried on by the unemployed peasantry on the fore- 
shores of all the larger streams throughout Szechuan. The 
returns are most insignificant, and the industry would never 
be attempted in lands less overpopulated than China. In 
the district of An Hsien and in the prefecture of Lungan Fu, 
both situated in the north-west of the province, gold-bearing 
quartz occurs and is worked and crushed, but the industry 
is only on a small scale. In the district of Mienning Hsien, 
in the Chiench'ang Valley, there is a Government gold mine 
fitted out with foreign machinery. This Moha mine, as it is 
named, a few years ago received a development grant of 
100,000 taels from the provincial treasury, and intermittent 
attempts at working it have been made without, however, 
any substantial returns. 

Most of the gold used in, and exported from, Szechuan 
comes from the western limits of the Chino-Thibetan border- 
land and from Thibet proper. The district of Litang is one 
of the principal sources of supply, and there, as elsewhere, it is 
obtained by placer-mining. In the Chiarung state of Badi- 


Bawang there is much gold, but it is jealously guarded from 
Chinese hands. This small State comprises a narrow strip of 
country on both sides of the upper reaches of the Tung River, 
thereabouts known as the Tachin Ho (Great Gold River). 
From time immemorial this and the surrounding regions have 
been famous for their precious metals. 

The aggregate of gold won from these various places 
must be very great. Practically all has been obtained by 
placer or pocket mining, and the metalliferous lodes appear 
never to have been found in situ. Possibly these exist in regions 
more remote and nearer the sources of the Tachin, Yalung, 
and Dre Rivers. Certain it is that the nearer the head-waters 
are approached the richer in gold become the sands and shingle- 
beds of these great streams. The gold is melted and made 
into small bars weighing 10 or 12 Chinese ounces. A surplus 
is exported down river either in the form of bars or converted 
into gold-leaf. The trade in gold is in the hands of Shensi 
men, as is also the trade in silver. These Shensi men are 
also largely concerned in the cash shops, native banks, and 

Silver-ores occur throughout the Chino-Thibetan border- 
land from Sungpan in the north to the borders of Yunnan in 
the south, but though mines are, or have been, worked in 
many places the region is really poor in silver. The provincial 
mint at Chengtu is mainly supplied by imports from down river. 
A certain amount of silver also enters the province from 

Copper-ores are much more abundant than silver, and occur 
from Peng Hsien southward to Yunnan. In the south-west 
corner of the province, especially in the department of Huili 
Chou, copper mining and smelting are considerable industries. 
The mines are worked by private companies holding licences 
which compel them to sell the metal at a fixed price to persons 
duly authorized by the Government. Both the Provincial 
and Imperial Governments appear to have a controlling hand 
in this industry, and the companies frequently complain that 
they cannot work the mines with anything like commensurate 
profit. Enormous quantities of copper are used in Szcchuan 
for a variety of purposes apart from that of minting cash 


pieces of various denominations. Tribute- copper from Yunnan 
is sent down river by way of Chungking to Ichang in native 
craft, and at the latter port is placed on board steamers for its 
intended destination. 

The department of Huili Chou also yields white copper 
(Peh-tung) in considerable quantities. This alloy is produced 
directly from the ores, in which the composing metals appear 
to be always present in little varying proportions. The 
coppersmiths receive it in round cakes about 7 inches in 
diameter. They remelt and alloy it with copper, zinc, tin, 
and lead in varying proportions to suit different purposes. 
White copper is used for an infinity of purposes, of which the 
making of water-pipes is one of the most extensive. 

Spelter or zinc (Peh-yuen) is found from the prefecture of 
Yachou southward to the boundaries of the province. Lead- 
ores occur from Sungpan Ting southward to Yunnan, but are 
perhaps more abundant in the district of Chingchi Hsien than 
elsewhere. Sulphur is found in the district of Kuangyuan 
Hsien in the north, the department of Mao Chou in the west, 
and the prefecture of Nanch'uan in the south. This latter 
region supplies the greater part of the province. The industry 
is carried on under Government surveillance, and the retail 
price is regulated by the provincial authorities. Iron-ores 
are found all over the mountainous regions of the west, but 
except in the prefecture of Yachou are less worked than in 
the region of the Red Basin. 

Coal is scarcely found west of the limits of the Red Basin, 
and antimony, which has recently figured as a large export 
from the Hunan province,^ has so far only been recorded from 
one district in Szechuan, and that in the extreme south-east 
corner of the province. A very inferior kind of jade occurs 
in the district of Wench'uan Hsien, where it is mined and 
exported to Kuan Hsien and Chengtu Fu, at which places it 

^ This antimony is exported through Hankow. The Imperial Maritime 
Customs Returns of that port for 1910 give the following figures relative to this 
trade ; — 

Piculs Taels 

Crude antimony . . . 157,486 value 900,377 

Ore .... 21,909 ,, 58,004 

Refuse .... 41,568 „ 13,871 


is made into bracelets, rings, and other ornaments, and sold 
at a very low price. 

Asbestos in small quantities is found in the prefecture of 
Kuichou, and also in the Chiench'ang Valley, but the supply 
is apparently insignificant. Tin has not yet been discovered 
in Szechuan, and I never heard of any precious stones being 
found there either. However, the country bounding the 
Liu-sha River from a little south of Chingchi Hsien to Fulin 
certainly looks as if it might contain the latter. 

From the foregoing brief and scrappy resume it will be 
evident to those interested that before any accurate and 
comprehensive account of the mineral and metalliferous 
wealth of this region can be written a mineralogical survey 
must be undertaken by competent persons. It may be that 
the wild mountain fastnesses of the west contain mineral 
wealth of great value, yet the probability is to the contrary. 
That the south-western corner of the province is rich in metalli- 
ferous lodes is as far as our present knowledge goes. All the 
more accessible and populous parts of Szechuan are well supplied 
with coal, iron, and lime of good quality. The Red Basin 
is extraordinarily rich in brine deposits, and salt, which is a 
Government monopoly, is the only mineral at present exported 
from Szechuan. 

The most fascinating subject connected with the mineral 
deposits of Szechuan is that of the famous " Fire- wells " of 
Tzu-liu-ching, the gas from which is employed locally in salt 
evaporation. There is good reason to believe that this gas 
emanates from petroleum beds which have not as yet been 
reached. The late Baron Richthofen estimated the coal- 
bearing ground in Szechuan to exceed in size the total area 
of every other province of China, though, at the same time, he 
pointed out that the bulk was too deeply buried to be ever 
of practical value. Possibly the untapped mineral-oil deposits 
of Tzu-liu-ching wUl some day become available and exceed in 
value that of all other mineral deposits found in the vast 
province of Szechuan. 



Some General Remarks on the Rebellion, the Causes 
which have produced it ; the people and future 

DURING the past two years events in China have 
followed so rapidly on one another that it is scarcely 
wise to attempt to discuss any phase of the situation 
other than that presented at the moment. Much history has 
been made in a very short period, and he would be a bold man 
who ventured to predict, other than in a general way, the possi- 
bilities or probabilities of the near future. Such conflicting 
accounts of the progress of events have been published that it 
is next to impossible for the man in the street to obtain any- 
thing like an accurate idea of the situation. According to a 
certain section of the foreign Press the Chinese in dethroning 
the Manchu Dynasty emancipated themselves from a verit- 
able Kingdom of Belial, and in its stead have established a 
promising Utopia. The more reliable section of this Press, 
however, takes a rather different view. That there has been 
a tremendous upheaval is perfectly obvious, but what the 
permanent result will be is undeniably obscure. The progress 
of the revolution has been amazingly rapid, and the results to 
date have been achieved with a minimum loss of life. Much 
privation and suffering has been wrought among all classes, 
but on the whole the dynastic dethronement has been more 
peaceably brought about than changes of a similar character 
in the past. 

It cannot be said that the revolution came as an unexpected 
event to those intimately acquainted with China. On the 
contrary, the surprise was that it had been so long deferred. 


Many students of things Chinese fully expected that an up- 
heaval would follow immediately upon the death of their 
Majesties, the late Empress Dowager and Emperor Kwang 
Hsii. During the period of nearly three years of grace which 
followed their demise, the Central Government became more 
and more inept, puerile, and rotten ; the provincial gentry and 
the student class more openly rebellious. The sanctioning of 
a foreign loan by the Central Government, which, among other 
purposes, provided for the construction of the Hankow- 
Szechuan Railway and the employment of foreign engineers, 
was merely the last straw. It is difficult to see how anything 
could have saved the late Dynasty short of a complete renova- 
tion of its system of government and the installation of a 
totally new class of officials capable of honestly conducting 
the necessary reforms. Such a change was an impossibility, 
but the Dynasty's life was prolonged a few months by a succes- 
sion of fair promises which, if made in good faith, it had not 
the strength to carry into effect. 

The late Manchu Dynasty has been equal to any of the 
long line of Dynasties that have ruled China. But it outlived 
itself and became an effete anachronism. In accordance with 
natural law it had to disappear and make way for another more 
in accord with the times. This Dynasty reached its zenith 
during the reign of the Emperor Kien-lung (a.d. 1736-96), 
and on his death it commenced to wane and wane rapidly. 
But for foreign intervention it would probably have dis- 
appeared during the great Tai-ping rebellion (a.d. 1850-64). 
With the merits or demerits of this foreign intervention we 
are not concerned. The fact remains that the time was only 
postponed. It gave the Dynasty a lease of life, but all to no 
purpose, as the recent disasters amply prove. There is, after 
all, nothing fundamentally new in the present unfortunate 
condition of affairs. During her long history China has been 
through it all before, and many times. But the forces which 
have induced the present rebellion are novel, since in her past 
rebellions she has not felt the power of Western civilization 
in the sense that she is feeling it now. The oldest of existing 
nations, China is attempting to attune herself anew in order to 
maintain her position as a nation, and to successfully compete 


with the modern and more aggressive civilization of the West. 
This latter, which came faintly knocking at her door a hundred 
odd years ago, has proved an irresistible power, and in spite 
of the, metaphorically speaking, heavily bolted and barred 
gates has made entrance, and is to-day well within the citadel. 
By riots, massacres, and several wars, China has tried her utmost 
to thrust back this forceful alien, but all to no purpose. The 
Boxer Rising in 1900 was the final effort. This failed utterly 
and miserably, and China gave up the contest. 

Long previous to this last effort, the most upright and far- 
seeing of China's statesmen had realized the hopelessness of the 
struggle, and had begun to urge upon the nation the importance 
of learning from the Occident all that was useful and helpful 
in order to renovate their country's condition, and render 
China strong and able to withstand foreign aggi"ession. The 
progress and enlightenment on Western lines since 1900 has 
been nothing short of marvellous. But, unfortunately, the 
ultra-progressives wanted to run before they could walk, and 
the ultra-conservatives were scarcely willing to move at all. 
For the time being the ultra-progressives are foremost, but 
this can only be a transient phase. Those adhering to the 
broad, happy medium of holding fast to all that is good of the 
old and building on it the best of the new must come into their 
own eventually. The earlier this happens the shorter will be 
the bitter period of travail. China's essential need to-day 
is what it has been for a century — a strong central govern- 
ment. Until this is vouchsafed there can be no lasting peace 
within her borders. 

Parliaments have been spoken of as a panacea for all evils 
of government. If one looks around, very pertinent questions 
concerning the universal fitness of this system present them- 
selves. In discussing the East it should ever be remembered 
that the Oriental mind is far from being in complete accord 
with the Occidental mind. Parliaments are of the West, and 
the Western model will have to be very considerably altered and 
modified before it can be successfully employed in the East. 
A republic, theoretically the highest and best form of govern- 
ment, has not altogether proved to be so in practice, judging 
by world-wide examples of to-day. When every republican 


citizen realizes fully the enormous responsibility resting upon 
him, and acts accordingly, the theory will become accomplished 
fact. The peoples of the most advanced Western nations 
are scarcely yet equal to this ; how then can such a form of 
government succeed in the Far East ? A strong, just man is 
appreciated the world over. In the East he ranks as a demi- 
god, and his authority quickly becomes undisputed. China's 
salvation will not yet be found in any advanced Western system 
of government, but in a wise, liberal despotism. Granted 
this, peace would speedily spread throughout the length and 
breadth of the empire, bringing with it prosperity and content 
to the industrious, patient, peace-loving millions. 

But lest the noise of the revolution, the effeteness of the 
late Dynasty, and the question of the stability of the present 
system of government obscure the real China, it may be well 
to pause for a moment to consider the country itself and the 
people inhabiting it. The eighteen provinces which make up 
China proper have a total area of, roughly, 1,500,000 square 
miles, and form a nearly square tract of country some 23° long, 
by 20° lat. The size is about fifteen times that of the United 
Kingdom, or seven times the size of France, or nearly half as 
large as the continent of Europe. Compared with the United 
States of America, it is equal in area to all the region east of 
the Mississippi River with Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa 
added. It is broken up into mountain, valley, and vast alluvial 
plains, and is drained by a magnificent network of navigable 
streams. The climate is continental in character and temperate 
over the greater part of the country. The south is within 
the tropics, but in the north the winters are almost arctic 
in severity. Three-fourths of the entire area is well adapted 
to agriculture, for which purpose it compares advantageously 
with any similar region in the world. The potential wealth 
represented in its mineral and metalliferous deposits is beyond 
computation. Such is the country of China proper without 
reference to the wealth of Manchuria or the vast area of the 
Outer Dominions, 

The Chinese are a homogeneous race, estimated at not 
less than 400,000,000 of people, and are without caste pre- 
judices. They have unquestionably great brain-power, and 


possess many solid virtues as well as peculiar national defects. 
They are also an extraordinarily virile and fertile people. 
So virile are they that as a nation they have absorbed their 
conquerors as readily as they have done the nations which 
they have conquered. It is astounding the influence they 
wield in this direction. As an example, take the late Manchu 
Dynasty. So completely have the Chinese absorbed the 
Manchus that to-day they are more " Chinese " than the Chinese 
themselves. Yet no other nation can absorb the Chinese, and 
though they are found the world over their nationality is every- 
where unmistakable. This virility is likewise exemplified in 
many other ways. For example, they are apparently indiffer- 
ent to climate, and are to be found as workers from the arctic 
regions to the tropics. The Chinese are everywhere the one 
coloured race which can work and will work. Wherever they 
are found they are industrious and capable. They wax wealthy 
where whites would starve, and no nation in matters of labour 
can compete with the Chinese on equal terms. They can copy 
anything and everything, and under foreign supervision have 
already turned out such complex machines as railway engines 
and steamships. 

Malthusian principles have never been listened to, much 
less practised in China. Large families are everywhere gloried 
in, and children abound throughout the land. Since a son is 
necessary to carry out the rites of ancestor-worship, boys 
are more generally in favour than girls, yet it is a mistake 
to think that the latter are despised or ignored. Even if 
preference be shown to sons, the daughters have a share of the 
family's affection. Infanticide, save in times of famine and dire 
distress, is not practised, all the stories written about it not- 
withstanding. Anent ancestor-worship we have nothing to say, 
except to remark that the respect and esteem for parents and 
old age, so characteristic of the Far East, is a wholesome 
example to the Occident. 

A keynote to the Chinese character is pride. They are an 
intensely proud people, and it must be confessed that their 
pride is justified. Look on their history, their conquests, 
their inventions, their arts, and crafts. In the history of the 
world few nations have equal claims to honour and greatness 


with the Chinese. They have also grave national faults, and 
this pride and its concomitant conservatism is largely the cause 
of their present position. Considering themselves the " whole 
earth," they have persistently and most superciliously ignored 
the " outer barbarian," as they termed the rest of the world, 
until disaster upon disaster has shaken the very foundations 
of their empire. That the scales are falling from their eyes 
is evident, but as a nation they have yet to grasp the fact that 
Western knowledge, even though it be of comparative " mush- 
room growth," cannot be acquired by the study of a few months, 
and neither can Western institutions be transplanted bodily 
and in adult form into China. I have met in China hundreds 
of students intent on acquiring Western knowledge, but scarcely 
one who in any sense realized the immensity of the task before 
him. These students persistently refuse instruction in the 
elementary branches of this knowledge, and are ever clamouring 
for their instructors to pass at once to the advanced and honours 
stages. The national defect, pride, is at the bottom of this 
attitude, and they have yet to appreciate that they must 
crawl first, then walk before they can safely run. 

The merchant class in China is as honourable as that of 
any country in the world, and foreign relationship with this 
body has always been satisfactory and mutually advantageous. 
The artisan, peasants; and farmers are unsophisticated, and 
every traveller has a good word for them. They are peace- 
loving, law-abiding; and very easily governed. It is somewhat 
otherwise with the gentry, students, and officials, who, as a 
class, have in the main always been more or less opposed to 
foreign intercourse, and have been the direct cause of many 
difficulties. For generations China went in for competitive 
examinations to supply all official posts, and had, as a result, 
a body of truly incapable officials. The principles associated 
with Tammany in the West were rampant in this class. Offices 
were sought and held for personal profit without any regard 
for public good. But individuals were less to blame than the 
system which time and pernicious methods had produced. 
The salaries attached to the various posts were ridiculously 
inadequate, and the holders had to peculate in order to exist, 
if for^ nothing else. Had the Government provided for its 


officials a " living wage " it could then have expected and 
demanded an honest, civil, and mihtary service. Instead of 
this, offices were commonly sold by the Government for large 
sums, and the purchasers allowed to farm them to their own 

It has been a rule in China that no important office could 
be held by an official in his native province. Theoretically, 
like much else in the Chinese system of government, this was 
an excellent rule, but in practice it had decided drawbacks. 
All officials, in consequence, were in the nature of aliens coming 
as they did from other provinces. At best they were strangers 
and, according to their strength of character, usually became 
subservient to, or at variance with, the local gentry. In 
wealthy provinces like Szechuan and Hunan, for example, 
these local gentry wield enormous power and are, in fact, the 
real rulers of the province. Local patriotism and self-interest 
are combined in this class, which commands a large following. 
The policy and actions of the late Government at Peking 
were very often antagonistic to the views of these gentry. 
Especially was this so in the matter of mining-concessions, 
open ports, and foreign loans. The Provincial Governments 
were frequently in a quandary in their efforts to harmonize 
the diametrically opposed views of both authorities. As the 
Central Government weakened, the provinces became more 
and more under the power of the gentry. The climax as the 
world now knows was reached in the early autumn of 191 1, 
when the local gentry of Chengtu Fu induced open rebeUion 
which, spreading with marvellous rapidity, very soon brought 
about the dethronement of the Dynasty. 

The Provincial and National Assembhes which the late 
Government was virtually forced to call into existence were 
mainly composed of gentry. The student class, both of the 
old and new schools of learning, in the main is made up 
of the sons of this same body. These students are far 
from being seekers after knowledge for knowledge's sake. 
In Chengtu they were several times openly mutinous, setting 
the Viceroy's authority at naught, and compelling him to grant 
their desires. In many parts of the country the authorities 
were almost openly afraid of these headstrong students, and 



totally unable to check their follies or curb their rebellious 

It is impossible to estimate how much the famous work 
called the Chuen Hioh Pien} written by the late Chang Chih 
Tung, when Viceroy of Liang Hu (Hupeh and Hunan provinces), 
has influenced recent events in China. Since 1900 many of 
the things advocated in this book have been put into practice, 
especially the matter of schools for Western learning, army 
reform, and newspapers. But the moral teachings the Viceroy 
enunciated so earnestly have been set at naught, and re- 
publicanism, which he so emphatically denounced, has been 
brought into being. China for the Chinese was the patriotic 
vision of this grand old man of China, but perhaps the fates 
were kind in removing him from this sphere before he had 
time to see his vision so passionately taken up as a slogan and 
pressed so hastily forward. 

It was fortunate for China that at least one practical 
statesman remained to take up the reins of government in 
the hour of need. Yuan Shih Kai is very human, but he has 
best right to be acclaimed the saviour of China. If his health 
and strength remain he may, in a few years, weld the country 
into a solid nation. If loyally supported by those who seek 
their country's good he can utilize all that is useful and worthy 
in the schemes of the more visionary ultra-progressive reformers, 
and render it of practical value. That his hands will be forced 
at times is certain, but granted time Yuan Shih Kai will succeed 
in bringing order out of chaos and place the Government of 
China on a sound basis. At present his position may be likened 
to that of a skilled driver who has had the reins of a runaway 
team thrust into his hands from those of an incompetent 
person. In time he will get his countrymen down to a common- 
sense trot, and then aU danger will be past. If allowed by the 
passionate rush of events to exercise the rights of his office 
Yuan Shih Kai will be able to surround himself with advisers 
Chinese and Foreign, whose interests will be none other than 
the welfare of China. 

The pressing need of the moment is, of course, funds to carry 

^ Translated into English, under the title Learn, by the Rev. S. I. Wood- 


on the Government and to disband the soldiery. This diffi- 
culty involves the vexed question of foreign loans, which has 
significance far beyond that current in Occidental newspapers. 
It is the reef on which the young republic may wreck its 
ship of State. To the narrow view-point of the local gentry 
and their following these loans will doubtless continue to 
appear unessential, and if their interests, real or supposed, are 
affected by the security demanded, their antagonism will be 
as bitter as formerly. Another difficult class, which if more 
evident under the old regime has not yet had time to disappear 
completely, consists of officials who desire to handle loans for 
the benefits they personally can derive from them. The 
competent body of officials who know and appreciate the 
absolute necessity of maintaining the country's credit by 
meeting all obligations, and also the importance of developing 
the resources of the empire, will most certainly have a difficulty 
in disposing of the opposition of one party and the mercenary 
desires of the other. 

That there are financiers willing to lend money on question- 
able security and a gullible public willing to subscribe to such 
loans is everyday history. Money is absolutely necessary 
to carry on this new republic of China, but it is trite to say 
that she must bewarelhow and in what manner it is obtained. 
The integrity of China is the one thing above all others which 
the Government must maintain, and promiscuous borrowing, 
even if it tides over present difficulties, may lead to even 
greater danger in the near future. The one foreign-supervised 
service which the late Dynasty grudgingly became reconciled 
to, namely, the Imperial Maritime Customs, has proved the 
strongest security possessed by the Central Government. 
Further, the international character of its personnel has been 
a tremendous factor in maintaining the integrity of the empire. 
The present Government will surely be well advised to ponder 
this thoughtfully. Until China has evolved a thoroughly com- 
petent civil service the example of her plucky and illustrious 
neighbour, Japan, is worthy of deep consideration. However 
galling it may be to the pride of the Chinese, it would appear 
absolutely essential in the best interests of China herself and the 
integrity of the empire that all foreign loans should be obtained 


through highly accredited international agencies. And, further, 
that foreign supervision of these loans, their application and 
disbursement, should be allowed, consistent with the mainten- 
ance of the dignity and prestige of the Chinese Empire. 

For many years past the Occident has been urging the 
Chinese to " wake up ! " Towards the end of the last century 
the clamours in this direction became most vociferous. The 
present upheaval is China waking up — nothing else. The 
outcome is fraught with colossal possibilities. China needs 
roads, railways, rolling-stock, machinery to develop her 
agriculture, mineral resources, and potential wealth generally. 
All these and very much more she stands in need of. Will 
the Occident merely furnish the samples and patterns for the 
Chinese to imitate, and ultimately supply ? Or — and who 
knows ? Granted a staple Government, the Chinese people 
can accomplish much. I do not believe in a " Yellow Peril " 
in the nature of a possible military conquest of the West. It 
would be necessary to fundamentally alter the Chinese character 
in order to make it militantly aggressive. But in their virility 
and industry they are unconquerable people, quite the equals 
of the West in these qualities. If they thoroughly " awaken," 
what is to prevent them becoming in commerce and industry 
the great competitors of the white race ? Time solves and 
adjusts all problems, and it will this, the real Yellow Peril, if 
such a thing be within the realm of possibility. 

To the people of the Occident in general all forms of 
civilization other than their own appear effete and retrograde. 
This is, perhaps, very natural, but will the Western ideal always 
dominate and remain the criterion, and must all the other 
peoples of the earth conform to it or become nonentities in 
the world's future history ? The people of the Middle Kingdom 
will undoubtedly accept from the West and utilize all the material 
advantages and mechanical appliances that have resulted from 
the discovery of steam and electricity and may yet retain 
their own ideals of life. On the tenets of their older civiliza- 
tion these people can wisely build and maybe they will evolve 
a state of existence intrinsically higher, more restful, and better 
suited to their nature and needs than that contained in the 
Western ideal. 

VOL. II. — 14 


China is a continent rather than a country, and everything 
is so entirely different from and opposite to Western ideas 
and practice. Hundreds of books have been written on China 
and the Chinese, yet Httle more than the fringe of the subject 
has been really broached. There is, indeed, no finality, and 
in any one book it is impossible to do more than itemize an 
occasional fact or two. Nearly eleven years of my life have 
been spent wandering up and down the by-ways of interior 
China. I was there through the Boxer crisis and the Russo- 
Japanese War, and also through certain local riots and dis- 
turbances. My experiences in China, though varied, have on 
the whole been very pleasant. To speak as we find and 
courageously is the only just stand to take. With all their 
peculiarities, conservatism, and faults, the Chinese are a great 
people. Phoenix-like, China has arisen time and again from 
the ashes of decadent dynasties, and there is every reason to 
beHeve she will accomplish this again. Her peace-loving, 
industrious millions can never be utterly smothered or nation- 
ally effaced. Sooner or later they must come into their own, 
and side by side with the people of the Occident help forward 
the destiny of the world. 


ftV^OjjMriwu., Q^forA^ lqi3 

Map of 


to illustrate 


Adapted from War Office Map of Ssu-ch'uan 
(eastern sheet provisional issue) and other sources 

] ^English Miles 



Abelia chinensis, i. IQ 

Engleriana, i. 77 

parvifolia, i. 19, 120 
Abies Delavayi, i. 225, 234, 247, 250 ; 
its wood, ii. 19 

squamata, i. 197, 198 
Abutilon Avicennae, i. 108 ; ii. 81 
Acanthopanax aculeatum, i. 109 
Acer Davidii, i. 194, 224 

griscum, i. 39, 41, 58. 

oblongum, i. 20 

pictum, var. parviflorum, i. 194 
Aconite, medicinal, i. 124 
Aconitum Hemsleyanum, ii. 40 

Wilsonii, i. 124 ; ii. 40 
Acroglochin chenopodioides, ii. 62 
Actinidia chinensis, i. 31, 32, 57, 
173 ; ii. 32. 

Kolomikta, i. 174 

rubricaulis, ii. 32 
Acupuncture, ii. 34 
Adenophora polymorpha, i. 21 
Adiantum Capillus-Veneris, i. 21 

pedatum, i. 134 
Adina globiflora, i. 19 

racemosa, i. 74 
^sculus Wilsonii, i. 38, 53, 224, 240 
jEthopyga dabryi, i. 46 
Agaricus campestris, ii. 63 
Agriculture, ii. 48 ; skill in, 50 
Agrimonia Eupatoria, ii. 11 
Ai-chiao, ii. 61 
Ailanthus glandulosa, i, 20 ; ii. 78 

Vilmoriniana, i. 57, 153 ; ii. 78 
Ai Lau-tsze, ii. 147 
Ailuropus melanolcucus, ii. 182 
Ailurus fulgcns st3'ani, ii. 182 
Ai Yang-tszc, ii. 153 
Albizzia lebbek, i. 88 ; its wood, ii. 22 
Aleurites Fordii, i. 17; ii, 5, 64; 
distribution of, 65 ; its import- 
ance, G7 
montana, ii. 64, 65 
Alder, wood, i. loi 
Aldridge, Dr., ii. 150 
Allium Cepa, ii. 60 
chinense, ii. 60 
fistulosum, ii. 60 
odorum, ii. 60 

Allium sativum, ii. 60 

Almond, a new, ii. 27 

Alniphyllum Fortunei, i. 232 

Alnus cremastogyne, i. loi, 109, 223, 
227, 234 ; ii. 5, 23 

Amaranthus paniculatus, ii. 63 

Amdo country, ii. 145 

Amelanchier asiatica, var. sinica, i. 

Amorphophallus konjac, i. 117; ii. 

Amphicome arguta, i. 189 ; ii. 11 

Anaphalis contorta, ii. 62 

Anemone japonica, i. 17, 21 ; ii. 10 
vitifolia, i. 127 
vitifolia, var. alba, i. 240 

Angelica polymorpha, var. sinensis, 
i. 47, 131 ; ii. 40 

An Hsien, city of, i. 116 

Animals, game, ii. 144 ; miscell- 
aneous, 190 

An-lan chiao, the, i. 171 

Antelope, the Thibetan, ii. 160 

Anthersea pernyi, ii. 78 

Antimony, ii. 198 

Apium graveolens, ii. 62 

Apple, a fine Crab, i. 56 

Apples, ii. 28 

Apricot, ii. 26 ; Japanese, 27 

Arachis hypogasa, ii. 30, 61 

Aralia chinensis, i. 49, 248 
quinquefolia, ii. 37 

Archangiopteris, ii. 13 

Arctium major, i. 82 

Arctous alpinus, var. ruber, i. 136 

Areca catechu, ii. 37 

Arcca-nut, ii. 37 

Aristolochia moupinensis, i. 250 

Arundinaria nitida, i. 61, 247 • ii. 

Asarum maximum, i. 21 

Asbestos, ii. 199 

Asmy, Dr., ii. 35 

Aspidistra punctata, i. 17 

Astilbe Davidii, i. 46, 132 
grandis, i. 46 
rivularis, i. 124, 127 

Attacus Cynthia, ii. 78 

Aucuba japonica, ii. 10 


Autumnal tints, i. 225 
Avena fatua, ii. 53 

nuda, ii. 53 
AzoUa filiculoides, i. 21 

Baber, E. Colborne, i. 221, 244, 250 ; 
on the white-wax industry, ii. 
100, 159 
Baboons, short-tailed, ii. 192 
Badi-Bawang, i. 167 ; the state of, 

i. 191 ; people, i. 192 
Bale tea, ii. 95 
Bamboo, a beautiful species, i. 49 

paper, ii. 75 

rat, ii. 190 

records, ii. 16 

scrub, i. 36, 237, 247 

shoots, edible, i. 237 ; industry in, 
i. 238 ; preparation of, i. 238 ; 
collecting, i. 240 ; ii. 62 

the Heavenly, i. 77 

uses of, ii. 16 ; species, 17 
Bambusa arundinacea, ii. 5, 17, 62 

spinosa, ii. 17 

vulgaris, ii. 18, 62 
Bambusicola fytchi, ii. 129 

thoracica, ii. 128 
Banks, Sir Joseph, ii. 46 
Banyan, the Chinese, i. 62, 99, 228 
Barley, cultivation of, ii. 52 ; 

varieties, 53 
Basella rubra, ii. 63 
Bay-cat, ii. 181 
Beale, Thomas, ii. 114 
Bean tree. Red, i. loi 
Bear, species of, ii. 184 

the Black, ii. 184 

the Parti-coloured, i. 132 ; ii. 182 

the Brown, ii. 188 
Bears' gall, ii. 188 
Beech, the Chinese, i. 37 

two species of, i. 43 
Benincasa cerifera, ii. 57 
Berchemia Giraldiana, i. 37 

lineata, i. 19 
Berezovski, M. M., ii. 147, 154, 182 
Berneuxia thibetica, i. 248 
Beta vulgaris, ii. 62 
Betel-chewing, ii. 37 
Betula luminifera, i. 224 

utiUs, Chinese variety of, i. 47 
Beyamini, ii. 154 
Bharal, ii. 145 
Big creeper, i. 20 
Birch, woods of, i. 49 
Birds, game, ii. 107 
Bitter-tea, ii. 98 
Blackwood, Bombay, ii. 15 

Chinese, ii. 15 
Bladder tree, i. 46 

Blandford, Dr., ii. 185 

Blechnum eburneum, i. 129 

Bletia hyacinthina, i. 21 

Boats, native, i. 23 

Bcehmeria nivea, i. 78, 108 ; ii. 75 ; 

fibre of, 82 
Bombyx mori, ii. 77 
Bonpa religion, i. 167, 168 
Bons d'Anty, Monsieur, i. 210, 211 
Bonvalot, M., ii. 192 
Botanicon Sinicum, the, ii. 89 
Brassica campestris, ii. 57 

campestris, var. oleifera, ii. 57, 60 

chinensis, ii. 57 

juncea, var. oleifera, ii. 60 

Napus, var. esculenta, ii. 59 

oleracea, var. caulo-rapa, ii. 59 
Bretschneider, ii. 89 
Brick-tea, the industry, ii. 93 ; the 

trade, 95 
Bridges, bamboo suspension, i. ii8, 
121, 164 

iron suspension, i. 164 

rope, i. 120, 164 

significance of, i. 164 
Brinjal, the, ii. 61 
Brooke, J. W., ii. 147, 154 
Broussonetia papyrifera, i. 20 ; ii. 74, 

Brown and Wilden, Messrs., ii. 147 
Bruang, the Malay, ii. 185 
Buckwheat, ii. 54 
Buddleia asiatica, i. 19 

Davidii, i. 123, 124 

Davidii, var. magnifica, i. 124 

officinalis, i. 19 
Budorcas, i. 132 

taxicolor, var. tibetanus, ii. 158 

tibetanus, i. 251 ; ii. 159 
Burdock, i. 82 

Butternut, the Chinese, i. 240 ; ii. 30 
Button tree, i. 74 
Buxus japonica, ii. 44 

microphylla, i. 41 

stenophylla, i. 19 

Cabbage, varieties of, ii. 56 
Csesalpinia japonica, i. 19 

sepiaria, i. 19, 33 ; ii. 5 
Cajanus indicus, ii. 56 
Callistephus hortensis, i. 142 
Campanula punctata, i. 58 
Camphor, Baros, ii. 37 ; Chinese, 37 

tree, i. 95 ; ii. 21 
Camptotheca acuminata, i. 109, 223 
Canarium album, ii. 29 
Canavalia ensiformis, ii. 56 
Cannabis sativa, i. 108 ; ii. 81 ; oil 

from seeds, 81 
Cantharellus cibarius, ii. 63 



Capricornis argyrochaetes, ii. 148 

milne-edwardsi, ii. 148 

sumatrensis, ii. 147 
Capsicum, ii. 62 

annuum, ii. 62 

frutescens, ii. 61 
Caragana chamlagu, ii. 63 
Carrieria calycina, i. 173, 239 
Carrot, the, ii. 60 
Carthamus tinctorius, ii. 86 
Caryopteris incana, i. 19. i54 
Cassels, Bishop, i. 102 
Cassia-lignea, ii. 37 
Cassiope selaginoides, i. 248 
Castanea moUissima, ii. 32 

Seguinii, ii. 32 

Vilmoriniana, i. 40 ; ii. 33 
Castanopsis, i. 231, 232 
Catalpa Duclouxii, i. 79 

Fargesii, i. 33 

ovata, i. 35 
Caves, Mantzu, i. 62, 83 
Cedrela sinensis, i. 20 ; its wood, ii. 

22, 62 
Celery, the, ii. 62 
Cclosia argentea, ii. 63 
Celtis sinensis, i. 20 
Cercidiphyllum, giant trees of , i. 126 

japonicum, var. sinense, i. 126 
Cercis racemosa, i. 45 
Cervus asiaticus, ii. 163 

cashmirianus macneilli, ii. 164 

kopschi, ii. 173 

songaricus, ii. 163 

unicolor dejeani, ii. 163 
Chaenomeles cathayensis, i. 19 ; ii. 28 

sinensis, i. 19 ; ii. 28 
Chaitzu, i. 80, 95 
Ch'a kuo-tzu, ii. 98 
Chalcophaps indica, ii. 137 
Chamdo, road to, i. 200 
Chang Chih Tung, ii. 207 
Chang-ho-pa, hamlet of, i. 239 

Hsien-tsung, the rebel, i. 100, 115 
Chango, town of, i. 191, 192 
Ch'ang shu, the, ii. 21 
Chang-tsze, ii. 169 
Chantui, road to, i. 200, 210 
Chan-tzu, ii. 54 
Chao Erh-feng, i. 118, 157. 212 
Chao Erh-hsun, i. 115 
Charcoal, i. 247 
Cha shu, ii. 77 
Ch'a-yu kuo-tzu, ii. 90 
Ch'e-ch'ien-ts'ao, ii. 63 
Chee-tsze, ii. 165, 171 
Che-ho-kai, village of, i. 229 
Cheilanthes patula, i. 21 
Che-kou-tzu, village of, i. 79 ; crops, 


Chelidonium lasiocarpum, i. 56 
Chengkou Ting, road to, i. 75 ; mule 

trains from, 76 
Chengtu Fu, city of, i. 112 ; foreign 

consulates at, 112; city wall, 

113 ; industries, 113 ; western 

innovations, 114 
Luck of, i. 139 
Plain, area of, i. 104 ; irrigation, 

105, 106 ; agriculture, 108 ; 

cUmate, 108 ; flora, 109 ; roads, 

109; bridges, 11 1 ; cities on. 

112 ; gentry of, 115 
Chen-lung ch'ang, village of, i. 94 
Chenopodium album, ii. 62 
Cherry, the Bird, i. 53 
trees of, i. 38 ; ii. 27 
Che-shu, the, ii. 68 
shan, village of, i. 118 
tou-pa, crops around, i. 73 
Chiala, King of, i. 209; state of. 

210, 212 ; marriage customs in, 

Chiangkou, town of, i. 93 ; trade. 93 ; 

navigable rivers, 93 
Chiao-lu-tsze, ii. 87 
Chia-peh-ho, ii. 60 
Chia-p'u-tao, ii. 30 
Chiarung States, i. 157 

tribes, origin, i. 160 ; conquest of, 

161 ; artisans, 162 ; architecture, 

162 ; dress. 165 ; customs, 167 
Chieh-k'eng, ii. 40 

pan-shao, ii. 58 
Chiench-ang Valley, ii. loi 
Chien-yiin-p'i, ii. 25 
Chih-chia-ts'ao, ii. 86 

tzu-hwa, ii. 87 
Chikou village, of, i. 61 
Chi-kung-hua, ii. 63 
Chilli-pepper, ii. 61 
China, area of, ii. 203 

grass, ii. 82 

Western, mountain ranges, i. i ; 
rivers, 3 ; game birds of, ii. 107 ; 
wild -fowl of, 138; game animals 
of, 144 
Chin-che, ii. 116 
Chinese fir, i. 232 
Chinese, food of, ii. 49 

Government, the, ii. 206 

race, the, ii. 203 ; virility of, 204 ; 
character of, 204 ; future of, 209 
Ch'ing-fu-yang, ii. 73 
Ching-kang, i. lOo 

mu, i. 109 
Ch'ing-ts'ai, ii. 62 

yu, ii. 60 
Chin-huang, ii. 60 .' 

me-wan-tzu, ii. 56 


Chino-Thibetan borderland, i. 150; 
geology, 151 ; river-system, 152 ; 
climate, 152 ; flora, 153 ; peoples, 

Chinquapin, Chinese, ii. 32 
Chin-ts'ai, ii. 60 

tzu shu, ii. 67 
Chin-ya ch'ang, village of, i. 98 ; 
caves, i. 98 

yin hwa, ii. 44 
Ch'i-pei-tzu, ii. 73 
Chiru, the, ii. 160 
Chloranthus inconspicuus, ii. 44 
Ch'ou-ch'un shu, ii. 78 
Chrysanthemum, type of, i. 20 ; the, 

ii- 43 
indicum, ii. 46 
segetum, ii. 62 
sinense, ii. 46 
Chrysolophus amherstiae, ii. 117 

pictus, ii. 116 
Chu, kinds of, ii. 17; Pan, 17; 
Tz'u, 17; Ch'ung, 17; Nan, 
18 ; Kwanyin, 18 
Ch'uan-tzu shu, ii. 67 

wu-tu, ii. 40 
Chu che, ii. 129 
Ch'u che, ii. 115 

chieh-liang, ii. 182 
Chiieh-fen, ii. 63 
Chuei-tzu, ii. 61 
Chu hwa, ii. 43 

ku-ping, valley of, i. 57 ; old lake 

bed, i, 57 
lan-hwa, ii. 44 
Chii-lo, ii. 25 
Ch'u-ma, ii. 82 
Chung-hoa, i. 186 

ma, ii. 82 
Chungpa, importance of, i. 128 
Ch'ung shu, ii. loi 

tsao, i. 186 ; ii. 39 
Ch'un-tuen shu, ii. 22, 62 
Cinnamonum Camphora, i. 95 ; its 
wood, ii. 21, 37 
Cassia, ii. 37 
Citron, Fingered, ii. 25 
Citrus Aurantium, var., ii. 25 
decumana, var., ii. 25 
ichangensis, ii. 25 
japonica, ii. 25 
Medica, var. digitata, ii. 25 
nobilis, ii. 25 
trifoliata, i. loi 
Civet, the Indian, ii. 181 ; palm, ii. 181 
Cladrastis sinensis, i. 240 
Clematis Armandi, i. 19 
Benthamiana, i. 19 
Faberii, i. 250 
fruticosa, i. 184 

Clematis glauca, i. 154 

gouriana, ii. 1 1 

grata, ii. 11 

Henryi, i. 19 

montana, i. 53 ; ii. 11 

montana, var. grandiflora, i. 175 

montana, var. Wilsonii, i. 227, 248, 

nutans, var. thyrsoidea, i. 203 

pogonandra, i. 53 

tangutica, i. 137 

uncinata, i. 19 
Coal, i. 13, 69, 70, 117 ; ii. 198 
Coccus pela, ii. 100; the breeding of, 


Codonopsis tangshen, ii. 40 
Coffee tree, Chinese, i. 38 
Coix lachryma, ii. 54 
Colocasia antiquorum, ii. 59 

var. Fontanesii, ii. 59 
Columba hodgsoni, ii. 137 
intermedia, ii. 136 
leuconota, ii. 137 
rupestris, ii. 136 
Cooper, T. T., i. 205 
Copper, i. 14 ; ores, ii. 197 
Copperas, i. 70 
Coptis chinensis, cultivation and 

use of, i. 36, 53, 227 ; ii. 40 
Coracles, skin, i. 165 
Corchorus capsularis, i. loS ; ii. 82 
Cordyceps sinensis, i. i86 ; ii. 39 
Coriandrum sativum, ii. 62 
Coriaria nepalensis, i. 17, 18 
Cornus capitata, ii. 32 
controversa, i. 123 
kousa, i. 31, 174 ; ii. 32 
macrophylla, i. 224 
paucinervis, i. 89 
sinensis, i. 39, 241 
Wilsoniana, i. 31 
Corydalis thalictrifolia, i. 21 
tomentosa, i. 56 
Wilsonii, i. 56 
Corylus chinensis, i. 55 

ferox, var. thibetica, i. 137 
heterophylla, var. crista-galli, i. 
Cotoneaster multifiora, ii. 11 
Cotton, introduction and cultiva- 
tion of, ii. 83 ; imports of cotton- 
yarn, 83 
Coturnix japonica, ii. 134 
Cowslip, the Sikhim, i. 198 
Crataegus cuneata, i. 32 

hupehensis, i. 20 ; orchards of, i. 34 ; 
ii. 29 
Crepe Myrtle, i. 107 
Crepis japonica, ii. 63 
Crocopus phcenicopterus, ii. 137 



Crossoptilun auritum, ii. 123 

tibetanum, ii. 123 
Cryptomeria japonica, i. 172 
Cuckoo, the English, i. 30 
Cucumis Melo, ii. 57 

sativus, ii. 57 
Cucurbita Citrullus, ii. 57 

maxima, ii. 57 

moschata, ii. 57 

ovifera, ii. 57 

Pepo, ii. 57 
Cudrania tricuspidata, i. 109, 154 ; 

ii. 77 
Cunninghamia lanceolata, i. 20, 75, 
223, 229 ; forests of, 230 ; ii. 
5 ; its wood, 18, 19, 45 
Cupressus funebris, i. 17, 74, 75, 223, 
229 ; ii. 5 ; its wood, i. 20 ; ii. 45 

torulosa, i. 153, 188, 193 ; ii. 20 
Curcuma longa, ii. 86 
Currant, black, a remarkable species, 

i. 44 
Currants, ii. 31 
Currency, intricacies of, i. 72 
Customs, Imperial Maritime, the, ii. 

Cymbidium ensifolium, ii. 43 
Cypripedium Franchetii, i. 177 

luteum, i. 136, 177, 179, 248 

spectabile, i. 136 

tibeticum, i. 179 ; ii. 9 

Dalai Lama, the, i. 211 
Dalbergia hupeana, i. 20 ; its wood, 
ii. 22 

latifolia, ii. 15 
Daphne genkwa, i. 17, 33 
Date-plum, ii. 29 
Datura Stramonium, i. 156 
Daucus Carota, ii. 60 
David, I'Abbe, ii. 4, 112, 115, 120, 123, 
125, 127, 137, 147, 154, 175, 182, 
Davidia, i. 123 

the smooth-leaved, i. 37 

involucrata, i. 43 

involucrata, var. Vilmoriniana, i. 

37. 42 
Decaisnea Fargesii, i. 224 
Deer, horns, trade in, ii. 161 

species of, ii. 161 ; the Black, 163 ; 

the Red, 163 ; the White, 164 ; 

the Tufted, 167 ; the Musk, 

169 ; the River, 171 ; Kopsch's, 

173 ; Roe, 177 
Dejean, Pdre, ii. 163 
Delavay, l'Abb6, ii. 4 
Delphinium chinense, i. 21 

grandiflorum, ii. 1 1 
Dendrocalamus giganteus, ii. 18, 140 

Derge, i. 210 

Desmodium floribundum, i. 19 

Deutzia discolor, i. 19 

longifolia, i. 177, 247 

rubens, i. 175 

Schneideriana, i. 19 
Diervilla japonica, i. 32 
Dioscorea alata, ii. 58 

Batatas, ii. 59 

rhipogonioides, ii. 87 

zingiberensis, ii. 59 
Diospyros kaki, ii. 29, 73 

Lotus, i. 153, 189 ; ii. 73 
Dipelta floribunda, i. 33 

ventricosa, i. 248 
Diphylleia cymosa, ii. 12 
Dipteronia sinensis, i. 32, 58 
Distylium chinense, i. 19, 89 
Docynia Delavayi, ii. 28 
Dogs, Thibetan, i. 202 ; Wild, ii. 

189 ; Raccoon, 189 
Dolichos Lablab, ii. 56 
Dove, the Common Turtle, ii. 135 ; the 
Pallid, 135 ; the Greater Turtle, 
135 ; the Small Turtle, 135 ; the 
Green-winged Ground, 137 
Doves, Pigeons, ii. 135 
Dryobalanops Camphora, ii. 37 
Dye plants, ii. 86, 87 

Economic products, wealth of, ii. 64 
Edgar, J. Hutson, i. 168 
Edwards, Professor A. Milne-, ii. 159 
Ehretia acuminata, its wood, ii. 23 

macrophylla, its wood, ii. 23 
Elaeagnus glabra, i. 19 

pungens, i. 19 
Elaphodus cephalophus, ii. 168 

ichangensis, ii. 168 

michianus, ii. 169 
Enkianthus deflexus, i. 226, 248 

quinqueflorus, ii. 44 
Eriobotrya japonica, i. 19 ; ii. 10 ; 

its wood, 22 ; fruit, 29 
Eriocaulon Buergerianum, i. 21 
Ervum Lens, ii. 56 
Erythrina indica, i. 153 
Escort, customary official, i. 87 
Eucommia ulmoides, i. 36, 77, 130 ; 

ii. 41 
Euptelea Franchetii, i. 52 

pleiosperma, i. 126 , 224 ; ii. 11 
Euralc ferox, i. 21 
Eurya japonica, i. 19 
Evonymus alata, i. 19 

grandiflora, ii. 11 

Faber, Dr. Ernst, i. 221 
Fagopyrum esculentum, ii. 54, 55 
tataricum, ii. 54 


Fagus sinensis, i. 37 
Fei-tsao-tou, ii. 72 
Felis bengalensis, ii. 181 

ingrami, ii. 181 

lynx isabellina, ii. 181 

nebulosa, ii. 180 

pallida, ii. 181 

pardus fontanieri, ii. 179 
variegata, ii. 179 

scripta, ii. 181 

temmincki mitchelli, ii. 181 

tristis, ii. 181 

uncia, ii. 180 
Ferns, abundance of, i. 223 
Feudal states, i. 158, 190 
Ficus impressa, i. 19 

infectoria, i. 62, 99, 222, 228 ; ii. 

Fir, Chinese, i. 75, 76 ; ii. 18 
Silver, i. 49, 234, 237, 246 
the Red, ii. 20 
Fire-wells, the, ii. 199 
Flora, its richness, ii. i ; value, 

contributors to knowledge of, 3 ; 

zones, 5 ; chart, 7 ; absentees, 

9 ; endemic character, 10 ; 

affinities, 1 1 ; ancient character, 

Floral calendars, ii. 42 
Flowers, favourite of Chinese, ii. 43, 

44. 45 
Fo-kuang, the, i. 221 
Forget-me-not, i. 59 
Fortune, Robert, ii. 3 ; on the insect 

white-wax trees, 100 
Fox, wild, ii. 189 
Fragaria elatior, i. 250 ; ii. 31 

filipendula, i. 248, 250 ; ii. 31 

indica, i. 21 ; ii. 31 
Fraxinus chinensis, i. 222, 228 ; ii. 

100, lOI 
Fritillaria Roylei, i. 180 ; ii. 39 
Fruits, miscellaneous, ii. 24 ; in- 
ferior quality of Chinese, i. 24 
Fu-chi-kou, coal from, i. 83 
Fu-ling ch'ang, village of, i. 96 
Fung Hwang, the, ii. 116 
Fungi, edible, ii. 63 
Fung shui, i. 15 
Fungus, Jew's ear, cultivation of, i. 38 

Gallinago australis, ii. 134 

galhnago, ii. 132 

megala, ii. 133 

solitaria, ii. 133 

stenura, ii. 132 
Gall-nuts, use of, ii. 87 
Gardenia florida, ii. 5, 87 
Gardening, ornamental, ii. 42 ; land- 
scape, 42 ; flowers cultivated, 43 

Gardens, Chinese, our debt to, ii. 46 

Japanese, ii. 42 
Gazella picticaudata, ii. 159 
Gazelle, Thibetan, i. 200; ii. 159 
Genera, monotypic, ii. 5 ; common to 

U.S.A. and China, 12 
Gentiana detonsa, i. 137 
purpurata, i. 134 
Veitchiorum, i. 139 
Geomancy, i. 15 
Gill, Captain W. J., i. 129, 143 
Gi-lung, lamasery of, i. 188 
Ginger, ii. 59 
Ginkgo biloba, i. 126 ; ii. 13 ; fruit 

of, 30 ; antiquity of, 45 
Ginseng, ii. 34, 37 
Gho Hsiung, ii. 184 
Gho-tou Hu, ii. 188 
Gho Wan-tsze, ii. 189 
Ghwar, the, ii. 163 
Glacial deposits, i. 13 
Gleditsia Delavayi, ii. 72 
horrida, ii. 72 
officinalis, ii. 40 
sinensis, i. 20 ; ii. 5 ; its wood, 22 ; 

its fruit, 71 
Gleichenia linearis, i. 223, 229 ; 

jungle of, 230, 244 ; ii. 5 
Glycine hispida, ii. 49, 55, 61 
Glycyrrhiza uralensis, ii. 39 
Goa, ii. 159 
Gold, i. 70, 128 ; mining, 129, 208 ; 

ii. 196 
Gooseberry, wild, i. 137, 203 ; ii. 31 ; 

the Ichang, 32 
Goral, i. 29 ; ii. 149 
Gossypium herbaceum, ii. 61 
Grandala coeUcolor, i. 180 
Grapes, ii. 30 
Grass cloth, ii. 82 
Gray, Dr. Asa, ii. 12 
Gymnocladus chinensis, i. 38 ; ii. 72 
Gj^psum, i. 70 

Hai-tuh, ii. 192 

Hamamelis mollis, ii. 3 

Han, d3masty of, i. 86 

Hankow, the trade entrepot of, ii. 64 ; 

the tea-mart, 90 
Hares, varieties of, ii. 175 
Hart, Sir Robert, ii. 38 
Hazel-hen, the Thibetan, ii. 126 
Hedera Helix, ii. 11 
Hei Lu-tsze, ii. 163 
Hei-shih-ch'ang, hamlet of, i. 173 
Hei-tao, ii. 30 ; the yeh, 30 
Helianthus annuus, ii. 61 
Hemerocallis flava, i. 21 ; flowers 
eaten, ii. 63 
fulva, i. 21 



Hemp, i. 108 ; varieties of, ii. 81, 82 
Hemp, Abutilon, i. 108 

(Cannabis), i. 76 
Henry, Augustine, ii. 4, 13 ; on the 

wild tea plant, 89 
Herbal, the Chinese, ii. 35, 36 
Heteropogon contortus, i. 17 ; ii. no 
Heude, Pere, ii. 150 
Hibiscus Abelmoschus, ii. 76 
Hippophae salicifolia, i. 131, 177, 196, 

197 ; ii. 8, 112 
Himeola polytricha, ii. 63 
History, Chinese, i. 86 
Hoary Pine, ii. 44 
Hoa-t'an che, ii. 124 
Ho-che kuan, village of, i. 99 
Hog Plum, i. 73 
Holboellia Fargesii, i. 53 
Honeysuckle, climbing, i. 53 
Horba states, i. 210 
Hordeum coeleste, ii. 53 

hexastichon, ii. 53 

var. trifurcatum, ii. 53 

vulgare, ii. 53 
Horticultural Society, The Royal, 

ii- 3 

Hosie, Sir Alexander, i. 170, 221 ; 
Consul-General, ii. 38, 77, 78 ; 
on insect white-wax, loi, 169, 

Hosiea sinensis, i. 54 

Hou-erh-tsao, ii. 72 

Hou-ma, ii. 81 

Hou-p'o, i. 45, 124 ; ii. 40 

Hovenia dulcis, i. 20, 79, 189 ; ii. 32 

Hsaochin Ho, the valley of, i. 183 ; 
and character of, 185 ; turbul- 
ence of river, 188 

Hsao-ho-ying, village of, i. 130 

Hsao-kou, hamlet of , i. 123, 124 

Hsao-lung-tang, hamlet of, i. 47 ; hos- 
tel, 48 ; bee-keeping, 48 ; flora, 
48 ; climate, 50 

Hsao-pa-ti, village of, i. 121 

Hsao-pingtsze, hamlet of, i. 60 ; re- 
markable view from, 60 

Hsao-yu-ts'ai, ii. 60 

Hsia-kou, hamlet of, i. 75 

Hsiang Mu, ii. 19 

Hsiang-p'i, ii. 169 

Hsiang-t'an, village of, i. 34, 35 

Hsiang-yang-ping, hostel at, i. 180 

Hsiang-yu, i. 96 ; ii. 61 

Hsien-ma, i. 108 ; ii. 82 

Hsih-hsiang-chiih, temple of, i. 226 

Hsi-hu-lu, ii. 57 

Hsi-kua, ii. 57 

Hsingshan Hsien, city of, i. 34 

Hsin-kai-tsze, town of, i. 186 ; 
bridge near, 187 

Hsin-tientsze, hamlet of, i. 39 ; hostel 

at, 201 
Hsiu-ku, ii. 54 
Hsiung tan, ii. 188 
Hsuan-kou, village of, i. 172 
Hsuehche, ii. 127 
Hsueh Chu-tsze, ii. 190 
Hsueh Pao-tsze, ii. 180 
Hsueh-po, hamlet of, i. 124 
Hsueh-po-ting, i. 136,139 ; pass below, 

Hsu-tzu, ii. 54 
Hua-chiao, ii. 62 
Huai shu, ii. 87 
Huang-chiang, ii. 59 
Huang-hua-ts'ai, ii. 63 
Huang-kou-shu, i. 222 
Huang-kua, ii. 57 
Huang-lien, the drug, i. 36, 53 ; 

ii. 40 
Huang-lien, tree, i. loi 
Huang-ma, i. 108 ; ii. 82 
Huang-nien-ya, ii. 62 
Huang-peh, ii. 41 
Huang-po, ii. 41 
Huang-tou, ii. 55 
Hui-t'ien-han, ii. 62 
Hu-lu, ii. 58 
Hung-ch'a, ii. 98 
Hung Chee-tsze, ii. 165 
Hung-hwa, ii. 86 
Hung Lo-po, ii. 60 
Hung Lu-tsze, ii. 163 
Hung-me, ii. 51 
Hung-shao, ii. 58 
Hung-shih-kou, hut at, i. 46 
Hung-tou-shu, i. 83, 89, loi ; ii. 56 
Hung-tsao, ii. no 
Hun-tzu, ii. 26 
Huo-kua, ii. 57 
Huo-ma, i. 108 ; ii. 81 
Hupeh-Szechuan boundary, i. 57 ; 

rugged nature of, 59 
Hupeh, western, geology, i. 12 ; flora, 

15 ; roads, 24 
Hu-p'i, ii. 87 
Hu-tzu-kua, ii. 57 
Hwa-k'o-li, ii. 87 
Hwa-kuo-ling, hostel at, i. 57 
Hwa-li, ii. 87 
Hwa-t'an che, ii. 124 
Hydrangea anomala, i. 226, 248 

Sargentiana, i. 39 

strigosa, i. 19 

villosa, i. 124, 248 

xanthoneura, i. 248 
Hydrelaphus incrmis, ii. 171 
Hymcnophyllum omeiensc, i. 250 
Hyoscyamus niger, i. 156 
Hypericum chinense, i. 19, 78 


Ice Age, ii. 13 

Ichang, city of, i. 11 ; flora, 17 

Fern-stones, i. 21, 29 
Idesia polycarpa, i. 231 
Ilex corallina, i. 19 

cornuta, i. 19 

pedunculata, i. 19 

Pernyi, i. 174 

yunnanensis, i. 174 
Illicium Henryi, i. 33 
Impatiens Balsamina, ii. 86 
Imperata arundinacea, var. Koenigii 

ii. 76 
Incarvillea compacta, ii. 9 

grandiflora, ii. 9 

variabilis, i. 189 

Wilsonii, i. 156, 184 
Indigo, i. 95, 108 
Inoculation, ii. 34 

Insect white-wax, history of, ii. 100 
the tree, 100 ; the insect, 100 
headquarters of industry, loi 
the industry, 102 ; uses of, 103 
trade, 103 
Ipomcea aquatica, ii. 62 

Batatas, ii. 58 
Iris japonica, i. 21 ; ii. 10 

Wilsonii, i. 60 
Irish potato, cultivation of, ii. 58 
Iron-ores, i. 70, 233 
Itea ilicifolia, i. 19, 75 
Ithagenes cruentus, ii. 119 

geoffroyi, ii. 118 

Wilsonii, ii. 119 

Jade-mining, ii. 198 
Jasminum floridum, i. 19 
Je-shui-t'ang, hostel at, i. 201 ; hot 

springs, 202 
Job's Tears, ii. 54 
Joss-sticks, composition of, ii. 23 
Juan-chiang-tzu, ii. 63 
Judas tree, description of, i. 45 
Juglans cathayensis, i. 240, 244 ; 
ii. 30 

regia, i. 33, 123, 130, 153 ; its 
wood, ii. 22 ; fruit, 30 
Juncus effusus, ii. 83 
June berry, i. 32 
Jungle-cat, Chinese, ii. 181 
Juniper, a fine specimen, i. 176 
Juniperus chinensis, ii. 45 

formosana, i. 247 

saltuaria, its wood, ii. 20 

squamata, i. 49, 225 
Jussiaea repens, i. 21 
Jute, ii. 82 

Kai-kos, i. 144 ; ii. 52 
Kai-ping-tsen, village of, i. 121 

Kalopanax ricinifolium, i. 231 ; its 

wood, ii. 23 
Kan-kan-ts'ai, ii. 57 
Kan-tsao, ii. 39 
K'an-tzu, ii. 25 
Kao-chiao, village of, i. 82 
Kao-liang, i. 96 ; ii. 54 
Kao-sen, ii. 63 
Kemas aldridgeanus, ii. 150 
Kerria japonica, ii. 10 
Keteleeria Davidiana, i. 34 ; ii. 20 
Kiakiang, temple near, i. 229 
Kiang-tou, ii. 59 
Kiating Fu, the insect white-wax 

industry in, ii. 100 
Ki-ling, ii. 161 
Kingdom of Flowers, ii. 47 
Kin-ta-ts'ai, ii. 57 
Koa-loong, ii. 124 
Kcelreuteria apiculata, i. 153 ; ii. 87 

bipinnata, i. 35, 118 
Kohl-rabi, ii. 59 
Kou-shih-tzu, ii. 73 
Kou-shu, ii. 74, 75 
Kua, varieties of, ii. 57 
Kuai-tsao, ii. 32 
Kuan-chai, village of, i. 185 
Kuan Hsien irrigation works, i. 105 ; 

temple, 107 ; tea industry, ii. 95 
Kuang-yu, ii. 66, 74 
Kublai Khan, i. 66, 67 ; his mint, ii. 


K'u-ch'iao-me, ii. 54 

Kuei-hwa, i. 234 ; ii. 44 

Kuei-p'i, ii. 37 

Kuei-yung, hostel at, i. 196 ; vege- 
tation around, 197 

Ku-kua, ii. 57 

Ku-lien-tzu, ii. 41 

Ku-li-tzu, ii. 27 

Kumquat, the, ii. 25 

Ku-ts'ai, ii. 62 

Kwanyin-ping, temple of, i. 235 

Kwong-kwong che, ii. 118 

Lacquer, Chinese, properties of, ii. 70 
Lactarius deliciosus, ii. 63 
Lactuca denticulata, ii. 62 

Scariola, ii. 62 
Lagenaria leucantha, var. longis, ii. 57 

vulgaris, ii. 58 

vulgaris, var. clavata, ii. 57 
Lagerstroemia indica, i. 19, 107, 129 ; 

ii- 5, 44 
Lamaism, i. 168, 211 
La-mei hwa, ii. 43 
Lammergeier, i. 200 
Lamp-wicks, ii. 83 
Land, tenure, ii. 48 
Langur, the Chinese, ii. 191 



Lan hwa, ii. 43 
Lan-hwa-yen, ii. 84 
Lao Hu, ii. 178 
Lao-hua-tsen, ii. 30 
Laolin, i. 74, 232, 236 ; difficulties in 
traversing, 239, 240, 243 ; char- 
acteristics of, 244 
Lao-mu chia, hamlet of, i. 31 
Lao Pa-tsze, ii. 179 
Lao-shih-che, hamlet of, i. 73 
Lao-tang-fang, hostel, i. 132 ; scenery 

beyond, 133 ; vegetation, 134 
Larix Mastersiana, i. 175 

Potaninii, i. 134, 197 ; its wood, ii. 
La shu, ii. loi 
Laurineae, abundance of family, i. 

223, 237, 244 ; ii. 5 
Lead mines, i. 242 
Leatham, A. E., ii. 168 
Lei-kang-k'eng, i. 90 
Lei-ku-ping, village of, i. 117 ; 

tea industry, 117 ; ii. 96 
Lemon, the Ichang, ii. 25 
Lentil, the, ii. 56 
Leontopodium alpinum, i. 250 
Leopard, the Chinese, ii. 179 ; the 

Snow, 180 ; the Clouded, 180 
Leopard-cat, ii. 181 
Lepus sechuenensis, ii. 175 

sinensis, ii. 176 

swinhoei filchneri, ii. 176 
Lerwa lerwa, ii. 127 
Lettuce, the, ii. 62 
Lhassa, the British Expedition to, 

i. 211 ; ii. 92 
Li, length of, 28 
Li, varieties of tree, ii. 21 
Liang-ch'a Ho, village of, i. 230 
Liang-fen, ii. 63 
Libocedrus macrolepis, ii. 10 
Lien hwa, ii. 30, 43, 59 
Lien sha, i. 234 ; ii. 19 
Lifan Ting, a highway from, i. 185 
Ligusticum Thomsonii, i. 186 
Ligustrum lucidum, i. 17, 20, 99, 189, 
228 ; ii. 5, 74, 100, loi 

strongylophyllum, i. 120 
Lilium Bakerianum, i. 155 

Brownii, i. 21 

Brownii, var. chloraster, i. 21 

Brownii, var. leucanthum, i. 21 

concolor, i. 21 

giganteum, i. 174, 248 

Henryi, i. 21 

mirabile, i. 53 

regale, i. 155 

Sargentiae, i. 123, 155 ; ii. 63 

Thayera;, i. 155 

tigrinum, i. 53, 155 ; ii. 60 

Limnanthemum nymphoidcs, i. 21 
Limnocryptes gallinula, ii. 134 
Linden bark, use of, i. 124 
Ling-chio, ii. 30, 59 
Linum usitatissimum, ii. 61 
Li-ping, i. 105, 106 ; motto of, 106 ; 

temple to, 107 
Liquidambar formosana, i. 17, 35, 

222 ; its wood, ii. 23 
Liquorice, ii. 39 

Liriodendron chinense, i. 31, 54 
Liriope spicata, ii. 44 
Litchi, ii. 29 
Li-tzu, ii. 28 

Liu-pei, Emperor, i. 86, 112 
Loans, foreign, i. 114 ; necessity of, 

ii. 208 
Lockhart, William, ii. 100 
Lolo, i. 156 
Longan, ii. 29 
Lonicera chcctocarpa, i. 138 

deflexicaljrx, i. 242 

hispida, i. 138 ; ii. 11 

japonica, i. 19 ; ii. 10, 44 

Maackii, var. podocarpa, i. 32 

pileata, i. 54, 120 

prostrata, i. 138 

thibetica, i. 138, 202 

tragoph3dla, i. 53, 59 

tubuliflora, i. 184 
Lophophorus Ihuy.'ii, ii. 123 
Lo-po, ii. 59 
Loquat, i. 19 ; ii. 22, 29 
Loropetalum chinense, i. 18, 35 ; ii. 3 
Lotus-lily, ii. 59 
Lu, the river, i. 205 
Luck Lil7, the Chinese, ii. 44 
Luffa cylindrica, ii. 57 
Lu-jung, ii. 162 

Lung-peh ch'ang, village of, i. 95 
Lung-tsao-ku, ii. 54 
Lupus filchneri, ii. 188 

karanorensis, ii. 188 
Lu-tou, ii. 56 
Lycoris aurea, i. 21, 231 

radiata, i. 21, 231 
Lydekker, R., ii. 144, 147, 159, 164, 

168, 185, 186 
Lyn.v, the Thibetan, ii. 181 
Lysimachia clethroidcs, i. 21 

crispidens, i. 33 

Henryi, i. 21 

Maackia, fine trees of, i. 46 
Macacus lasiotis, ii. 192 

tibetanus, ii. 192 

vestitus, ii. 192 
Ma che, ii. 122 

Ma-chiao-kou, paper mill at, i. 232 
Machilus nanmu, ii. 5, 45 


M'Neill, Captain Malcolm, ii. 144, 

146, 147, 154, 163, 164, 173, 185, 

Macropygia tusalia, ii. 137 
Magnolia, i. 53, 55 ; number of 

species of, ii. 12 
of&cinalis, i. 40, 45, 124 ; ii. 12 
Mahogany, Chinese, ii. 22 
Mahon, Captain E. W. S., i. 72 
Ma-hsien-ping, hamlet of, i. 54 ; tea 

industry at, 54 
MaHsiung, ii. 188 
Ma Huang, i. 199 
Maize, cultivation of, ii. 53 
Malie, village of, i. 243 
Malus, sp., i. 41 
prunifolia, ii. 28 
spectabilis, ii. 28 
Malva parviflora, ii. 62 

verticillata, ii. 62 
Manchu Dynasty, ii. 201 
Manifold, Lieut. -Colonel C. C, i. 72 
Mantzu, i. 158 
Mao Chou, tea entrepot of, ii. 96 ; 

pheasants around, ii. 112 
Mao-erh-tao, ii. 32 
Mao-fu-lien, river at, i. 40 
Mao-niu, village of, i. 195 
Mao Pan-li, ii. 32 
Mao-ts'ao, ii. 76 
Mao-tung-han-ts'ai, ii. 62 
Map, inaccuracy of, i. 96, 122 
Marbled cat, Chinese, ii. 181 
Marches, Thibetan, i. 157 
Marco Polo, i. iii, 112 ; ii. 38, 74, 114, 

Maries, Charles, ii. 3 
Marmota himalayanus, ii. 190 
Marsilea quadrifolia, i. 21 
Materia Medica, ii. 34 
Matriarchal kingdoms, i. 167 
Mausoleums, remarkable, i. 92, 102 
Mazus pulchellus, i. 21 
Mears, C. H., ii. 147, 154, 155 
Meconopsis chelidonifolia, i. 127, 248 

Henrici, i. 138, 199 ; ii. 9 

integrifolia, i. 138, 181, 199 ; ii. 9 

punicea, i. 138, 181 ; ii. 9 

racemosa, i. 138 ; ii. 9 
Medicine Guild, ii. 37 

the Father of Chinese, ii. 34 

value of foreign, i. 192 
Medicines, Chinese, tonic and aphro- 
disiac properties of, ii. 234 ; 
difficulties of identification, 38 ; 
trade in, 38 
Mei hwa, ii. 43 
Melastoma Candida, i. 223 
Melia Azedarach, i. 20, 96, 100 ; ii. 5 
Melilotus macrorhiza, ii. 56 

Meliosma, a new, at Chin-tien-po, i. 45 
Beaniana, i. 45, 131 
Kirkii, i. 239 
Veitchiorum, i. 38, 44, 131 

Meratia praecox, i. 19 ; ii. 43 

Mercury, uses of, ii. 34 

Me-tiao sha, i. 127 ; ii. 20 

Me-wan-tzu, ii. 55 

Mien-hwa, ii. 83 

Miller, PhiUp, ii. 46 

Millet, varieties of, ii. 54 

Mi-me, ii. 53 

Mineral oil, i. 70 
wealth, ii. 194 

Ming-tsen Yang (Serow), i. 46 ; ii. 

Miniak, kingdom of, i. 210 

Mining, ii. 194 

Miscanthus latifolius, i. 109 
sinensis, i. 109, 171 

Mistletoe, i. 20 

Mitchell, Mason, ii. 186 

Mock orange, i. 76 

Momordica charantia, ii. 57 

Monkeys, i. 198, 224 ; snub-nose, 
species of, ii. 191 

Monkong Ting, the three towns of, i. 

Monochoria vaginalis, i. 21 

Monotypic trees, i. 224 

Morus alba, ii. 77 

alba, var. latifolia, ii. 77 

Moschus sifanicus, ii. 169 

Moss, Sphagnum, i. 234, 237, 249 

Mount Omei, i. 219 

Mou-tzu shu, ii. 67 

Mo-yij, i. 117 ; ii. 60 

Mu, the Hsiang, ii. 19 ; the Yin- 
chen, 19 ; the Sha, 10 ; the 
Nan, 21 ; the Ying, 21 ; the 
Hung-tou, 21 ; the T'an, 22 ; 
the Ching, 23 

Mucuna sempervirens, i. 19, 34 

Mu-kua, ii. 28 

Mulberry, i. 83 ; ii. 77 

Muleteers, Thibetan, i. 202 

Muntiacus crinifrons, ii. 167 
lacrymans, ii. 165 
reevesi, ii. 167 
pingshiangicus, ii. 167 
sclateri, ii. 167 

Muntjac, i. 79; the Crying, ii. 165; 
the Black, 167 ; the Hairy- 
fronted, ii. 167 

Musk, trade in, ii. 169, 170 

Mussaenda pubescens, i. 223 

Mu-yu shu, ii. 64, 65 

Myrica rubra, ii. 32 

Myricaria germanica, i. 19, 131, 154 ; 
ii. II 



Neemorhedus aldridgeanus, ii. 150 

cinereus, ii. 1 53 

griseus, ii. 150, 152 

henryanus, ii. 150, 152 
Nan chu, ii. 140 

Nandina domestica, i. 19, 77 ; ii. 44 
Nan-kua, ii. 57 
Nanmu trees, i. 109 ; ii. 21 
Nan-pa ch'ang, village of, i. 83 ; 

river, 83 
Nan to, hamlet of, i. 13 
Narcissus tazetta, ii. 44 
Nei, chu, the, i. 183 
NeilUa sinensis, i. 41, 44 

longeracemosa, i. 177 
Nelumbium speciosum, i. 21 ; ii. 30, 

44. 59 
Nephelium Litchi, ii. 29 

longana, ii. 29 
Nephrodium molle, i. 21 
Nertera sinensis, ii. 10 
Nga-ba tribe, i. 145 
Ngai Lau-tsze, ii. 147 
Ngai Niu, ii. 159 
Ngo-lok tribe, i. 145 
Nicotiana rustica, i. 137 ; ii. 84 

Tabacum, ii. 84 
Ning-ching shan, i. 149 
Ningpo varnish, ii. 70 
Niu Ping (Cow-flat), i. 30 
Niu-tou shan, flora of, i. 175 ; road 

across, 176 
Nut-galls, trade in, ii. 73 
Nuts, miscellaneous, ii. 33 
Nyctereutes procyonides, ii. 189 

stegmanni, ii. 190 

Oaks, silkworm-feeding, ii. 78 
Oats, ii. 53 

Ocelot, the Asiatic, ii. 181 
Oils, culinary, ii. 49, 56, 60, 61 
Olive, Chinese, ii. 29 
Omei Hsien, town of, i. 222 
Omei shan, i. 219; the Golden Sum- 
mit, 230 ; bronze relics, 220 ; 
Suicide's cliff, 221 ; flora, 222 ; 
floral zones, 223 ; Rhododendrons 
on, 226 ; medicine, 227 
O-mi-to Fu, stone, i. 97 
Onion, the family, ii. 60 
Onopopelia humilis, ii. 135 
Onychium japonicum, i. 223 
Openshaw, Rev. Harry, i. 237 
Ophiorrhiza cantonensis, i. 21 
Opium, the trade ; the pipe, ii. 
Poppy, suppression of, ii. 79 ; 
former cultivation of, 80 ; origin 
of cultivated races ; a winter 
crop, 81. 

Opuntia Dillenii, i. 155 

Orange, groves of, i. 24 ; the Man- 
darin, ii. 25 ; the Sweet, 25 ; 
the Ichang, 25 

Orleans, Prince Henri d', ii. 127, 192 

Ormosia Hosiei, i. 83, 89, loi, 109 ; 
ii. 21 

Oryza sativa, ii. 50 

sativa, var. glutinosa, ii. 52 
sativa, var. montana, ii. 52 
sativa, var. praecox, ii. 51 

Osmanthus fragrans, i. 234 ; ii. 44 

Osmunda regalis, i. 21 

Osteomeles Schwerinae, ii. 10 

Ounce, the, ii. 180 

Ovis ammon hodgsoni, ii. 146 
nahura, ii. 145 

Pa, the kingdom of, i. 66, 86 

Pachyrhizus angulatus, ii. 59 

Paeonia Veitchii, i. 250 

Pai-miao ch'ang, i. 93 

Pai-yang, ii. 145 

Palseornis derbyana salvadori, i. 

Paliurus orientalis, i. 73 

ramosissimus, i. 109 
Palmer, Thomas, ii. 47 
Pan-chu, ii. 137 
Panda, the Giant, ii. 182 ; the 

Chinese, 183 
Panicum crus-galli, var. frumentac- 
eum, i. 89, 90 ; ii. 54 

miliaceum, ii. 54 
Pan-Ian shan, i. 179 
Pan-li, ii. 32 

Pantholops hodgsoni, ii. 160 
Pan-yang, ii. 145 
Pao-k'o, ii. 53 
Paoning Fu, city of, i. 100 ; trade and 

history, 100 
I'ao-tien-pa, hamlet of, i. 231 
P'ao-tsze, hamlet of, i. 82 
P'ao-tzu, ii. 31 
Papaver alpinum, i. 142 

somniferum, ii. 6r 
Paper, bark, ii. 75 ; India, 75 ; 
bamboo, 75 ; rice, 76 

making, ii. 74, 75 

money, ii. 74 

mulberry, ii. 74 
Paracelsus, Bombastus, ii. 36 
Paradise Fly-catcher, the, i. 30 
Parrot, Green, i. 152 
Parsnip, the, ii. 60 
Parthenocissus Henryana, i. 19, 29 

Thomsonii, i. 19 
Partridge, the Sifan, ii. 127 ; the 

Bamboo, 128 
Paulownia Duclouxii, i. 20 ; ii. 5 


Pa-yueh-cha, ii. 32 

Peach, a new species of, i. 203 ; ii. 26 

the common, ii. 25, 28 
Peasants, some Chinese, i. 85 
Peh-fu-yang shu, ii. 73 
Peh Hsiung, ii. 182, 183 
Peh-k'o, i. 126 ; ii. 30 
Peh-kuo-yuen, hamlet of, i. 58 
Peh Litzu, ii. 44 
Peh Lu-tsze, ii. 164 
Peh-pai ch'ang, village of, i. 90 
Peh-pai-ho, village of, i. 90 
Peh-shan ch'ang, village of, i. 91 
Peh-ts'ai, ii. 56 
Peh-tung, ii. 198 

Peh-yang ch'ang, village of, i. 122 
Peh-yang-tsai, hamlet of, i. 36 
Peh-yuen, ii. 198 
P'ei-chi, ii. 59 

Pei-mu, the medicine, i. 180, 186 ; 
ii. 39 ; the Jen, 39 ; the Ch'uan, 
Pei-mu che, ii. 125 
P'ei-yu, ii. 66 
Pen-shao, ii. 58 

Perdix hodgsoniae sifanica, ii. 127 
Perilla ocymoides, ii. 61 
Persian wheels, i. 73 
Persimmon, ii. 29 ; the oil, 73, 74 
Petroleum beds, ii. 199 
Peucedanum sativum, ii. 60 
Phaseolus mungo, ii. 56 

mungo, var. radiatus, ii. 56 

vulgaris, ii. 56 
Phasianus berezovskyi, ii. 112 

decollatus, ii. 112 

elegans, ii. 11 1 

holdereri, ii. 108, 109 

mongolicus, ii. 107 

strauchi, ii. 113 

torquatus, ii. 107 

torquatus, var. kiangsuensis, ii.108 
Pheasant, Anderson's, ii. iii 

Blood, ii. 118 

Eared, ii. 122 

Grouse, ii. 125 

Lady Amherst's, ii. 117 

Monal, ii. 123 

Pucras, ii. 119 

Strauch's, ii. 113 

the Blue-eared, ii. 123 

the Chinese Ring-neck, ii. 107, 108 

the Common, ii. 109 

the Golden, ii. 116 

the Mongolian, ii. 107 

the Reeves, ii. 114 

the Ringless, ii. 112 
Phellodendron chinense, ii. 41 
Philadelphus Wilsonii, i. 247 
Photinia Davidsoniae, ii. 45 

Photography, difficulties of, i. 197 
Phyllostachys heteroclada, ii. 17, 75 

pubesccns, i. 17 ; ii. 5, 17 
Picea ascendens, i. 127 ; its wood, ii. 

aurantiaca, i. 203 

complanata, i. 247 

pachyclada, i. 40, 44 

Wilsonii, i. 44, 47 
Picrasma quassioides, ii. 41 
Pien-chin, hamlet of, i. 56 ; flora, 

56 ; crops, 56 
Pien-kou, village of, i. 121 
Pien-tou, ii. 56 
Pig, the wild, ii. 174 
Pigeon, a Green, ii. 137 

the Long-tailed, ii. 137 

the Rock, ii. 136 

the Spotted, ii. 137 
Pigeons, Snow, i. 201 ; ii. 137 
Pine, clustered cones, i. 79 

Corean Nut, ii. 33 

Hard, ii. 20 ; White, 20 

the Chinese, i. 74 

the White, i. 44 
Ping-ling-shih, village of, i. 232 ; 

the industry, 239 
Ping-she Fei-tsao, ii. 72 
Pinus Armandi, i. 39, 44, 47, 58, 134, 
176, 203 ; its wood, ii. 20 ; its 
seed, 33 

densata, ii. 20 

Henryi, i. 39, 44, 58 ; ii. 20 

koraiensis, ii. 33 

Massoniana, 1. 17, 29, 32, 35, 74, 
75, 223, 229 ; ii. 5 ; its wood, 
19, 23, 45, 87 

prominens, i. 184, 195, 203 ; ii. 20 

Wilsonii, i. 176 ; ii. 20 
Pistacia chinensis, i. 73, loi, 153 ; 

its wood, ii. 22, 62 
Pisum sativum, ii. 55 
Plant, Captain C, i. 5 
Plantse Wilsonianae, ii. 27 
Plantago major, ii. 11, 63 
Plants misnamed " japonica," ii. 10, 

Platycarya strobilacea, i. 20, 75 ; ii. 

Platycodon grandiflorum, i. 21 ; ii. 

Pleione Henryi, i. 41, 52 
Plums, ii. 27 

Podophyllum Emodi, ii. 1 1 
Po-lau-tzu, i. 144 
Polyandry, i. 213 
Polygala Mariesii, i. 19 
Polygonum tinctorium, ii. 86 
Pomegranate, ii. 30 
Pomelos, ii. 25 



Poppy, a ycUow-flowcrcd, i. 56 
Poppyworts, i. 138, 181, 199; ii. 9 
Populus lasiocarpa, i. 56, 57 ; fences 
of, 57 

Silvestrii, i. 20, 35 
Porphyra vulgaris, ii. 63 
Potash salts, i. 117; manufacture of, 

125. 247 
Potato, Irish, disease of, i. 50; ii. 

Potentilla anserina, ii. 1 1 

chinensis, i. 21 

discolor, i. 21 ; ii. 63 

fruticosa, i. 199 ; ii. 8 

multifida, ii. 63 

Veitchii, i. 199, 250 ; ii. 8 
Poterium officinale, ii. 11 
Po-ts'ai, ii. 63 

Pratt, A. E., 221 ; ii. 123, 125, 187 
Prickly Oak, i. i8i 
Pride of India, i. 96, 100 
Primrose, a blue, i. 38 

Chinese, i. 20, 29 
Primula Cockburniana, i. 196 ; ii. 9 

involucrata, ii. 11 

nivalis, i. 181 

obconica, i. 20, 33 ; ii. 3, 47 

ovalifolia, i. 38, 248 

Prattii, i. 248 

pulverulenta, ii. 9 

sibirica, i. 184 

sikkimensis, i. 179, 198 ; ii. 9, 11 

sinensis, i. 17, 29 ; ii. 47 

Veitchii, i. 179 ; ii. 9 

vincaeflora, i. 179, 181 

violodora, i. 39 

vittata, ii. 9 
Privet, i. 99 
Prunus Armeniaca, ii. 26 

Davidiana, ii. 26 

dehiscens, ii. 27 

involucrata, ii. 28 

mira, i. 203 ; ii. 26 

mume, ii. 27, 43 

Padus, ii. 11 

Persica, ii. 25 

salicina, ii. 27 

serrula, var. tibctica, i. 197 

triloba, ii. 43 
Przewalski, N. M., ii. 4 
Pteridium aquilinum, ii. 63 
Pteris longifolia, i. 21 

serrulata, i. 21 
Pterocarya Delavayi, i. 224 

hupehensis, i. 33, 126 

stenoptera, i. 20, 223 ; ii. 5 
Pteroceltis Tatarinowii, i. 33 
Pterostyrax hispidus, i. 42, 53, 224 
Pu-chih-ts'ao, ii. 83 
Pucrasia styani, ii. 120 

Pucrasia xanthospila, ii. 119 

xanthospila, var. ruficollis, ii. 120 

Pueraria Thunbergiana, i. 19 ; ii. 63 

P'uerh tea, ii. 97 ; uses of, 98 

Pulse, varieties of, ii. 55, 56 

Punica Granatum, ii. 30 

Pun-tsao, or Herbal, ii. 35 

P'u-tao-tzu, ii. 30 

Pyracantha, crenulata, i. 17, 19 ;"ii. 98 

Pyramid, the, i. 15 

Pyrola rotundifolia, i. 250 

Pyrus sinensis, ii. 28 
ussuriensis, ii. 28 

Quail, ii. 134 

the Bustard, ii. 135 
Quercus aliena, i. 58 ; ii. 21, 78 

Fabri, ii. 78 

Ilex, var. rufescens, i. 197 

serrata, i. 20, 75, 100, 222, 223 ; 
ii. 21, 78 ; cupules, use of, 87 

variabilis, i. 58 ; ii. 21, 78 ; 
cupules, use of, 87 

fungus culture on, i. 38 
Quince, ii. 28 

Rafts, bamboo, ii. 140 ; wild -fowl 

shooting from, 141 
Railway, Hankow-Szechuan, i. 11, 32, 

72, 114, 115 ; ii. 88 
Ramie fibre, ii. 82 ; trade in, 82 
Ranunculus acris, ii. 1 1 
repens, ii. 1 1 
sceleratus, ii. 11 
Rape, Chinese, ii. 60 
Raphanus sativus, ii. 59 
Ready, Oliver G., ii. 107 
Rebellion, the, i. 114, 115; progress 

of, ii. 200 
Red Basin, i. 3 ; boundaries of, 64 ; 
area, 64 ; geology, 64, 69 
agriculture in, i. 67 ; crops, 67 ; 
fruits, 68 ; mineral wealth, 69 
Reeves, John, ii. 47, 114 
Rch-lung-kuan, village of, i. 182 
Rehmannia angulata, i. 21, 30, 31 

Henryi, i. 35 
Rcinwardtia trigyna, i. 17, 21 
Religious communities, preservation 

of trees by, ii. 45 
Rhamnus davuricus, i. 19 ; ii. 87 

tinctorius, ii. 87 
Rhea, ii. 82 

Rheum Alexandrae, i. 199 
officinale, ii. 39 

palmatum, var. tanguticum, i. 
131 ; ii. 38, 39 
Rhinopithccus bieti, ii. 191 
brelichi, ii. 192 
roxellanae, ii. 191 


Rhizomys vestitus, ii. 190 
Rhizotomoi, ancient Greece, ii. 36 
Rhododendron, wealth of, ii. 6 

adenopodum, i. 51 

Augustinii, i. 39 

calophytum, i. 126 

discolor, i. 59 

Fargesii, i. 49, 51 

Fortunei, ii. 3 

Hanceanum, i. 241 

indicum, i. 17, 19, 40, 46, 56 

maculiferum, i. 51, 53 

Mariesii, i. 40, 59 

Przewalskii, i. 199 

sutchuenense, i. 37, 51 

yanthinum, i. 247 
Rhubarb, medicinal, cultivated, i. 52, 
60 ; ii. 38 

wild, i. 49 
Rhus Cotinus, i. 19 

javanica, i. 20 ; ii. 73, 87 

orientalis, i. 247 

Potaninii, ii. 73 

Toxicodendron, ii. 71 

verniciflua, fatty seeds of, i. 45, 
123, 130 ; ii. 68 ; varnish from, 
69 ; oil from fruit, 71 
Ribes alpestre, var. giganteum, i. 
203 ; ii. 31 

laurifolium, i. 250 

longeracemosum, ii. 31 

longeracemosum, var. Davidii, i. 

longeracemosum, var.Wilsonii, i. 44 
Rice, importance of, ii. 49 ; cultiva- 
tion, 51 ; varieties of, 51, 52 ; 
straw, 83 
Rice-wheat, ii. 53 
Richthofen, Baron, i. 64 ; ii. 199 
Rifle stocks of walnut wood, i. 35 
River, Fou Ho, i. 128 

Kialing, i. 8, 99 

Kien kiang, i. 7 

Min, i. 9 

the Paoning, i. 99, loi 

the Tung, i. 9 

the Ya, ii. 140, 141 

Yalung, i. 10 

Yangtsze, i. 3 ; navigation on, 4 ; 
depth, 6 ; names of, 6 ; tribu- 
taries, 7 
Road, the Great Salt, i. 57 ; diffi- 
culties of, 193, 195 
Rodgersia sesculifolia, i. 44, 124, 174 ; 

pinnata, var. alba, i. 247 
Romi Chan go, town of, i. 190 
Rosa Banksiae, i. 18, 33 ; form of, 36 ; 
root-bark, use of, ii. 87 

indica, i. 89, 118 ; ii. 46, 90 

laevigata, i. 18 ; ii. 5 

Rosa microcarpa, i. 18, 29 ; ii. 

microphylla, i. 173 ; ii. 11 
moschata, i. 18, 31, 36, 154 
multibracteata, i. 154 
multiflora, i. 18, 31, 36 
omeiensis, i. 227 
sericea, i. 38, 56, 154, 248 ; ii. 11 
Soulieana, i. 154, 184, 189 
Willmottiae, i. 154 
Rose: Banksian, i. 18, 89 

Lady Banks's, root-bark, use of, i. 


Musk, i. 18, 36 

Rambler, i. 31, 36 

the Tea, i. 89, 118, 120, 123 
Roses, i. 18 

Rostratula capensis, ii. 130 
Rubber tree. Hardy, i. 36, 45 
Rubus amabilis, ii.31 

biflorus, var. quinqueflorus, ii. 31 

corchorifolius, i. 32 ; ii. 31 

flosculosus, ii. 31 

Fockeanus, i. 248 

ichangensis, ii. 31 

innominatus, ii. 31 

omeiense, ii. 31 

parvifolius, i. 19 ; ii. 31 

pileatus, ii. 31 

tricolor, i. 250 

xanthocarpus, i. 144 ; ii. 31 
Rye, ii. 53 

Saccharum ofi&cinarum, ii. 85 

officinarum, var. rubricaule, ii. 85 
ofi&cinarum, var. sinense, ii. 85 

Saftiower, ii. 86 

Sagittaria sagittifolia, ii. 59 

Salix babylonica, i. 20 ; ii. 98 
Fargesii, i. 41 
magnifica, i. 175 
variegata, i. 19 

Sallowthorn, i. 131, 177, 196 

Salt, i. 26, 69 

Salvia Przewalskii, i. 156 

Salvinia natans, i. 21 

Sambar, the Szechuan, ii. 163 

Sambucus adnata, i. 250 
Schweriniana, i. 132 

Sanai, i. 211 

San-chia pi, i. 109 

San-chia-tsze, hostel of, i. 137 ; 
vegetation around, 138 ; fauna, 

Sang shu, ii. 77 

San-tsze-yeh, hamlet of, i. 135 
San-yu-tung, i. 28 
Sapindus mukorossi, i. 20, 73, 153 ; 

fruits, use of, ii. 72 
Sapium sebiferum, i. 20 ; ii. 67 



Sargentodoxa cuneata, i. 38 

Sassafras, the Chinese, uses of, i. 40, 
■ 76 
tzumu, i. 40 

Saxifraga sarmentosa, i. 21 

Schisandra, species of, i. 53 

Scliizophragma integrifohum, i. 59 

Scirpus lacustris, ii. 83 
tuberosus, ii. 59 

Scolopax rusticula, ii. 129 

Seaweed, ii. 63 

Secale fragile, i. 58 ; ii. 53 

Sedum sarmentosum, i. 21 

Senecio divorum, i. 132, 222 
japonicus, ii. 10 

Seng-chiang, ii. 59 

Sericulture, i. 228; the industry, ii. 77 

Serow, i. 46, 132 ; ii. 146 

Sesamum, ii. 87 

indicum, i. 96 ; ii. 49, 61 

Setaria italica, ii. 54 

Sha, the Hung, ii. 20 ; the Tieh, 20 
the Peh, 20 ; the K'an-peh, 20 
the Yu, 20 ; the Hsiang, 20 
the Me-tiao, 20 ; Tuen-ch'u, 20 

Sha kou-ping, hamlet of, i. 54 ; flora 
of, 54 

Sha-mu-jen, ascent of, i. 48 ; flora, 

Shan-cha, ii. 29 

Shan-chia-kou, hamlet of, i. 76 ; 
crops, 76 

Shan-chih-ma, ii. 61 

Shan-li-hung-tzu, ii. 29 

Shan-peh-k'o, ii. 33 

Shan-yeh-wangtzu, i. 82 

Shar har, ii. 122 

Sha shu, ii. 18 

Sha-to-tzu, descent to, i. 77 ; village 
of, 78 ; trade, 77 ; coal, iron and 
lime, 77 
river, navigability of, i. 77 

Sheep, wild, i. 200 ; the Blue, ii. 
145 ; Hodgson's, 146 

She-li-p'i, ii. 181 

Sheng-neng-chia, range and altitude, 
i. 51 ; forests of, 51 ; flora of, 
52-54 ; description of range, 55 

Shennung, the Emperor, ii. 34, 49 

She-p'ao-tzu, ii. 31 

Shihch'uan Hsien, city of, i. 119 

Shih Hwang-ti, i. 86, 112 

Shih-tsao-che, hamlet of, i. 33 

Shu : the Huai, ii. 22 ; the Tsao-k'o, 
22 ; the Yeh-ho, 22 ; the Hei- 
tou, 22 ; the Huang-Hen, 22 ; 
the Pi-pa, 22 ; the Ch'un-tien, 
22 ; the Feng-hsiang, 23 ; the 
Tzu-k'an, 23 ; the Tzu-ch'in, 23 ; 
the Sung, 23 

VOL. II. — 15 

Shu, the kingdom of, i. 66, 86 
Shuang-miao ch'ang, village of, i. 88 
Shui-ching-pu, village of , i. 128 
Shui-mo-kou, village of, i. 172 
Shui-ting-liangtsze, farmhouse at, i. 

Shui-yueh-tsze, i. 32 
Shu-lang, ii. 87 

Sibirgea Ijevigata, i. 138 ; ii. 11 
Sifan, i. 135 ; manners and customs, 

145. M8 
Signatures, Doctrine of, ii. 36 
Silk, wild, i. 100 ; annual production 

of raw, ii. 77 
Silkworm trees, ii. 77, 78 
Silver ores, ii. 197 
Sinofranchetia sinensis, i. 53 
Sinowilsonia Henryi, i. 56 
Snipe : the Painted, ii. 130 ; the 
Common, 132 ; Pin-tailed, 132 ; 
Swinhoe's, 133 ; the Solitary, 
133 ; Latham's, 134 ; the Jack, 
Snow-cock, ii. 126 
Snow- part ridge, ii. 127 
Soap trees, varieties of, ii. 71 
Solanum Lycopersicum, ii. 61 

Melongena, ii. 61 

tuberosum, ii. 58 
Song die, ii. 119 

Sophora japonica, i. 20, 153 ; its 
wood, ii. 22, 45, 47 

Moorcroftianum, i. 19 

viciifoha, i. 18, 189 ; ii. 10 
Sorbaria arborea, i. 137 
Sorbus munda, i. 226 
Sorghum vulgare, i. 96 ; ii. 54 
Soy Bean, ii. 49 ; varieties of, 55, 87 
Spear grass, i. 17 ; ii. no 
Sphenocercus apicicauda, ii. 137 
Spilopelia chinensis, ii. 135 
Spinacia oleracea, ii. 63 
Spu-asa alpina, i. 138 ; ii. 11 

Aruncus, i. 124, 127, 247 

Blumei, ii. 98 

chinensis, i. 19 ; ii. 98 

Henryi, i. 177 ; li. 98 

hirsuta, ii. 98 

mollifolia, i. 138 

mj'rtilloides, i. 138 

prunifolia, fl. pi., i. 45 
Spondias, i. 73 

axillaris, i. 172, 229 
Spruce, flat-leaved, i. 40, 44, 127 

Hemlock, i. 41, 44, 52 
Ssuch'uan, Report on the Province of, 

ii. 38 
Ssu-kua, ii. 57 
Staphylea, a pink-flowered, i. 39 

holocarpa, i. 41, 46, 53 


Sterculia platanifolia, i. 20, 118 
Strawberry, a new, i. 250 
Straw braid, ii. 83 
Streptopelia decaocta, ii. 135 
Strobilanthes flaccidifolius, i. 95, 108 ; 

cultivation of, ii. 86 
Styan, F. W., ii. 166 
Stylophorum iaponicum, i. 38 
Styrax Hemsleyanum, i. 32, 38 

Perkinsiae, i. 250 

roseus, i. 248 

Veitchiorum, i. 54 
Sugar, cultivation of, ii. 85 ; history, 

Sulphate of iron, i. 70 
Sulphur, ii. 198 
Su-ma, ii. 61 
Summer Lilac, i. 124 
Sun-bird, i. 46 
Sung che, ii. 119 

Sungpan, city of, i. 141 ; trade, 143 ; 
crops, 144 ; game around, 145 ; 
the tea trade, ii. 97 ; pheasants 
around, 11 i 
Sung shu, i. 134 ; ii. 19 
Sun-kua, ii. 57 
Sus leucomystix, ii. 175 

moupinensis, ii. 175 
Swastika, i. 169 

Sweet Chestnut, i. 32, 58, 76 ; ii. 

Gum, i. 76 

Potato, ii. 58 

tea, ii. 98 
Syers, H. C, ii. 172 
Symplocos crataegoides, i. 19, 32 
Syringa Potaninii, i. 184 

Sargentiana, i. 247 

tomentella, i. i8i 

verrucosa, i. 37 

Wilsonii, i. 203 
Syrmaticus reevesi, ii. 114 
Szechuan, eastern, scarcity of food 
i. 58 ; timidity of people, 58 ; 
crops, 58 ; rugged scenery, 59 
Szechuan, market villages, i. 91, 96, 

north-central, features of, 102 

peasants, their greed, i. 102 

population of, i. 67 

Ta-chen-chai, i. 90 

Tachienlu, town of, i. 205 ; popu- 
lation of, 206 ; trade, 208 ; the 
brick tea trade, ii. 95 

Tachin Ho, the, i. 190 

Ta-huang, ii. 38 

Taiping Hsien, tea industry, i. 83 

Takin, the Chinese, ii. 153 

Tak-ing-ming-ts'ai, ii. 62 

Tan-chia-tien, village of, i. 61 ; 
highway, 61, 62 

T'ang DjTiasty, ii. 86 

Tang-kuei, i. 47 ; ii. 40 

Tang-li, ii. 28 

T'ang-li-tzu, ii. 98 

T'ang-ma, ii. 81 

Tang-shen, cultivated, i. 56 ; ii. 40 

Taning-ching, salt wells of, i. 61 

Taning Ho, navigability of, i. 62 

Taning Hsien, city of, i. 62 ; trade, 

T'an-shu-ya (Lime Tree Pass), i. 32 

Tan-yao-tzu, charcoal burning, i. 241 

Tao-tzu, ii. 25 

Tao-3a, ii. 29 

Ta-p'ao shan, our camp on, i. 198 ; 
vegetation of, 198 ; the pass, 199 ; 
view from, 200 ; highway robbers 
on, 200 

Ta-ping-shan, hamlet of, i. 59 ; crops 
59 ; flora, 59 

Tapiscia sinensis, i. 234 

Taraxacum officinale, ii. 62 

Ta-suan, ii. 60 

Ta-t'ien-ch'ih, hamlet of, i. 245, 246 

Ta-t'ou-ts'ai, ii. 59 

Ta-wan-tzu, ii. 54 

Ta-wei, village of, i. 184 

Taxus cuspidata, var. chinensis, i. 
225 ; ii. 20 

Ta-yu-ts'ai, ii. 60 -■ 

Tchitrea incei, i. 30 

Tea, its history, ii. 89 ; export trade, 
90 ; for Thibetan market, 91 ; 
brick tea, preparation of, 92 ; 
carriers, 95 ; for Sungpan mar- 
ket, 95 ; preparation of, 96 
subspontaneous bushes of, i. 89, 

92 ; sweet, 227 
oil, ii. 98 ; uses of, 99 
plant, the, ii. 89 ; where in- 
digenous, 89, 90 ; cultivation of, 
for Thibetan market, 92, 95 
shrub, the, ii. 98 

" Teas," sources of miscellaneous, 
ii. 98 
transport of, ii. 94, 95, 96 

Teh-li-pe kuo-tzu, i. 109 

Temples, i. 14 ; grounds, ii. 45 

Teng-ts'ao, ii. 83 

Tetracentron sinense, i. 37, 52, 177 

Tetraogallus henrici, ii. 126 
tibetanus, ii. 127 

Tetraophasis obscurus, ii. 125 
szechenyi, ii. 125 

Tetrapanax papyrifera, ii. 76 

Tetrastes severtzovi, ii. 126 

Th'ai-ling, road to, i. 195 ; gold 
mining at, 195 ; road to, 200 



Thalictrum dipterocarpum, i. 155 
minus, i. 21 
petaloideum, ii. 11 
Thayer, John E., ii. 106 
Thea cuspidata, i. 19 
Sasanqua, ii. 98 
sinensis, ii. 89 

sinensis, var. assamica, ii. 97 
Thibet, eastern frontier of, i. 150 ; 

the people, 206 ; Lamas, 207 ; 

gate of, 209 
Thibetans, tea essential to, ii. 91 ; 

value of tea trade with, 97 
Three Kingdoms, i. 112 
Thuya orientalis, ii. 45 
Tiao-chung, ii. 44 
Tien-ch'iao me, ii. 54 
Tien-ch'u, ii. 44 
T'ien-hwa, ii. 86 
Tien-kua, ii. 57 
T'ien-ts'ai, ii. 62 
Tiger, the, ii. 178 

bones, trade in, ii. 179 
Ti-kua, ii. 59 
Tilia Henryana, i. 33 
Timber, scarcity of native, ii. 15 ; 

Bamboo, 16 ; China Fir, 18 ; 

coniferous, 20 ; Oak, 21 
Ti-p'ao-tzu, ii. 31 

Tobacco, introduction of, and culti- 
vation, ii. 84 ; preparation of, 

Toddalia asiatica, i. 17 
Toddy-cat, ii. 181 
Tomato, the, ii. 61 
Torricellia angulata, i. 34, 75 
Trachelospermum jasminoides, i. 

Trachycarpus excelsus, i. 239 ; ii. 5, 

Tragopan caboti, ii. 121 

temmincki, ii. 120 
Trapa natans, i. 21 ; ii. 30, 59 
Trapella sinensis, i. 21 
Tree, the Red Bean, ii. 21 
Tricholoma gambosa, ii. 63 
Trigault, a Jesuit priest, ii. 16 ; on 

the insect white-wax, 100 
Triticum sativum, ii. 52 
Tsai Gho, ii. 189 
Ts'ai-kua, ii. 57 
Ts'ai-tai, ii. 57 
Ts'ai-yang-p'ao-tzu, ii. 31 
Ts'ai-yu, ii. 61 
Tsao-k'o shu, ii. 71 
Tsao-shan, the, i. 231 
T'sao-tzu, ii. 29 
Tsao-wu-tu, ii. 40 
Tsa shu, i. 109 ; ii. 77 
Tsin-shih Hwang, i. 66, 86 

Tsin-tzu, i. 238 

T'so che, ii. 121 

Ts'ong, ii. 60 

Tsuga chinensis, i. 44 ; its wood, ii. 

yunnanensis, i. 225, 247 ; its wood, 

ii. 20 
Tsui-Ian ch'a, ii. 98 
Tsung-lu, village of towers, i. 189 
Tsung-tung-che, temple of, i. 233 
Tsze-mien, ii. 41 
Tsze-niu, ii. 30 
Tsze-tzu, ii. 29 
Tu-chung, i. 77 ; ii. 41 
Tuen-ma, i. 108 ; ii. 81 
Tulip tree, Chinese, i. 31 ; a fine 

specimen of, 54 
Tu-men-pu, village of, i. 98 
Tung-ch'ang Ho, iron and copper 

industries at, i. 233 
Tung-che-kou, iron from, i. 83 
Tung-ching shu, ii. loi 
Tung-han-ts'ai, ii. 62 
Tung-hao, ii. 62 
Tunghsiang Hsien, city of, i. 84 ; 

roads from, 85 
Tung-ku, village of, i. 193 ; vege- 
tation around, 194 
Tung-kua, ii. 57 
Tung-lu, ii. 87 

T'ung-lu-fang, hamlet of, i. 195 
T'ung-ma, ii. 81 
T'ung oil, ii. 64 ; uses, 66 ; trade in, 

Tungshantzu, temple of, i. 15 
T'ung-ts'ao, ii. 76 
T'ung-yu shu, ii. 64, 65 
Turmeric, ii. 86 
Turnip, varieties of, ii. 59 
Tumix blandfordi, ii. 136 
Turtur chinensis, ii. 135 
decaocta, ii. 135 
humihs, ii. 135 
orientalis, ii. 135 
Tu-tien-tsze, village of, i. 128 
Tu-ti-liang shan, i. 124 ; flora of, 125 ; 

lumber industry, 127 
Tzu-ching, ii. 44 
T'zu-ku, ii. 59 

Ulmus parvifolia, i. 20 

pumila, ii. 45 
Umbrella Leaf, ii. 12 
Ursiis malayamis wardi, ii. 186 

thibetanus, ii. 185 

thibetanus macneilli, ii. 185 

iorquatus, ii. 185 

torquatus macneilli, ii. 185 
U'sen, ii. 62 
Usnea longissima, i. 249 


Varnish trees, abundance of, i. 45 ; 
fat expressed from fruit, 45 ; 
ii. 68 ; collecting the sap, 69 ; 
trade, 70 
Vegetables, quality of, ii. 49 
Vegetable tallow, ii. 67 ; the in- 
dustry, 67 ; exports, 68 
Verbascum Thapsus, i. 156 
Verbena officinalis, i. 21 ; ii. 11 
Viburnum brachybotryum, i. 19 

coriaceum, i. 224 

erubescens, var. Prattii, i. 126 

ichangense, i. 38 

propinquum, i. 19 

rhytidophyllum, i. 41, 45, 56 

theiferum, i. 227 ; ii. 98 

tomentosum, i. 31 

utile, i. 19 
Vicia Faba, i. 108 
Vigna Catiang, ii. 56 
Viola Patrinii, i. 21 
Vitex Negundo, i. 19, 88 
Vitis Davidii, ii. 30 

flexuosa, i. 19 

vinifera, ii. 30 
Viverra zibetha, ii. 181 
Vulpes aurantioluteus, ii. 189 

filchi-eri, ii. 189 

ladacensis, ii. 189 

lineiventer, ii. 189 

waddelli, ii. 189 

Wade, H. T., ii. 107, 139 

Walnut, ii. 30 

Wang-chia ch'ang, village of, i. 

Wang Lung-ssu, i. 136 
Wang-tung-tsao, hamlet of, i. 81 
Wan-tiao shan, ascent of, and flora, 

i. 36 
Wapeng, hut at, i. 51, 52 
Wapiti, ii. 163 
Wa shan, i. 245 ; ascent of, 246 ; 

Rhododendrons on, 247, 248 ; 

ladders, 249 ; summit, 249 ; 

temple, 250 ; game fauna, 251 
Wassu, state of, i. 168 ; people, 169 ; 

frontier of, 173 
Water-chestnut, ii. 30 
Water-shed, Han-Yangtsze systems, 

i- 55 

Watson, W. C. Haines, i. 143 ; ii. 161 
Wa-wu, Mount, ascent of, i. 234 ; 

temples on, 235 ; altitude, 236 ; 

flora, 237 ; game fauna, 238 
Wa-wu shan, i. 231 
Wax-dog, ii. 103 
Wax, insect white, i. 99, 223, 228 ; 

trees, 228, 229 
Weng-ts'ai, ii. 62 

Wen-tang-ching, town of, i. 80 ; 

salt industry, 80 ; coal, 81 ; river, 

navigability of, 81 ; crops, 81 
Wen-tsao, hamlet of, i. 42 ; flora of, 

Western China, the Garden of, i. 115 
Wheat, cultivation, ii. 52 
Wheat-straw, ii. 83 
Wilden and Brown, Messrs., ii. 147 
Wild-fowl, varieties of, ii. 142 
Wild-silk, ii. 78 
Williams, S. Wells, ii. 107, 116 
Willow-chips, source of tea, ii. 98 
Wintergreen, i. 14 
Wisteria sinensis, i. 17, 18 
Wokje people, i. 180, 183 ; residence 

of chieftain, 185 ; prosperity of 

state, 187 
Wolves, ii. 188 

Woodcock, the Common, ii. 129 
Wood, Coffin, ii. 19; Sha, 20; South 

ern, 21 ; fire, 23 ; miscellaneous, 

Wood Oil : the trees, i. 35, 73, 74, 

78, 82, 83, 96, 99 ; ii. 64 ; the 

industry, 65 
Woodwardia radicans, i. 17, 21, 129 
Wo-sheng-ts'ai, ii. 62 
Wu-pei-tzu, ii. 73, 87 
Wu-tung, i. 118 

Xylosma racemosum, ii. 45 

racemosum, var. pubescens, i. 14, 
20 ; ii. 5, loi 

Yachou Fu, centre of brick-tea 
industry for Tachienlu market, 
ii. 92 

Yak, i. 202 

Ya-ku, ii. 63 

Yams, varieties of, ii. 58 

Yang-ko-che, ii. 125 

Yang-mei, ii. 31, 32 

Yang-ming-nitzu, i. 82 

Yang-mu-nai-tzu, ii. 32 

Yang-tao, ii. 32 

Yang-tientsze, hamlet of, i. 243 

Yang-yii, ii. 58 

Ya-tsao, ii. 40 

Yeh Ch'u, ii. 174 

Yeh-hau-ts'ai, ii. 62 

Yeh-hua-tsen, ii. 56 

Yeh Lau-tsze, ii. 146 

Yeh Niu, ii. 153 

Yeh-peh-ho, ii. 63 

Yeh Yang-tsze, ii. 149 

Yellow-wood, the Chinese, i. 53 

Yen, ii. 84 

Yen-me, ii. 53 

Yen-ts'ai, ii. 62 



Yilung Hsien, city of, i, 97 ; cotton 

in, 97 
Yin-chen Mu, ii. 19 
Ying Mu, ii. 21 
Ying-tao, ii. 27 
Yo-tzu, ii. 25 
Yuang-ma, ii. 82 
Yuan-kou, i. 121 
Yuan Shih Kai, i. 115 ; ii. 207 
Yuen-fang, village of, i. 92 
Yu-la shu, ii. 45 
Yiin-tou, ii. 56 
Yun3'^ang Hsien, salt in, i. 77 
Yu-pangtzu, i. 82 

Yu-p'o, ii. 41 
Yu-shih-tzu, ii. 73 
Yu-tsao-chio, ii. 72 
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